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Membrane fusion is an essential step in the encounter of two nuclei from sex cells-sperm and egg-in fertilization. However, aside from the involvement of two molecules, CD9 and Izumo, the mechanism of fusion remains unclear. Here, we show that sperm-egg fusion is mediated by vesicles containing CD9 that are released from the egg and interact with sperm. We(More)
Introducing a point mutation is a fundamental method used to demonstrate the roles of particular nucleotides or amino acids in the genetic elements or proteins, and is widely used in in vitro experiments based on cultured cells and exogenously provided DNA. However, the in vivo application of this approach by modifying genomic loci is uncommon, partly due(More)
BACKGROUND MAMLD1 is known to be a causative gene for hypospadias. Although previous studies have indicated that MAMLD1 mutations result in hypospadias primarily because of compromised testosterone production around the critical period for fetal sex development, the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be clarified. Furthermore, although functional studies(More)
Tetraspanin CD81 is closely homologous in amino acid sequence with CD9. CD9 is well known to be involved in sperm-egg fusion, and CD81 has also been reported to be involved in membrane fusion events. However, the function of CD81 as well as that of CD9 in membrane fusion remains unclear. Here, we report that disruption of the mouse CD81 gene led to a(More)
MAMLD1 is a causative gene for disorders of sex development. Several MAMLD1 mutations have been shown to cause hypospadias by generating dysfunctional proteins and/or unstable mRNAs. Here, we identified an intronic mutation of MAMLD1 (g.IVS4-2A>G) in 1 of 180 hypospadias patients. RT-PCR of the patient's skin sample showed normal expression of full-length(More)
The conventional Δ5 and Δ4 steroidogenic pathways mediate androgen production in females. While multiple non-conventional pathways to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) have recently been postulated in humans, the functional significance of these pathways remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the origin of androgens in healthy women and in(More)
Although mastermind-like domain containing 1 (MAMLD1) (CXORF6) on human chromosome Xq28 has been shown to be a causative gene for 46,XY disorders of sex development with hypospadias, the biological function of MAMLD1/Mamld1 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we first showed gradual and steady increase of testicular Mamld1 mRNA expression levels in(More)
Although copy-number variations (CNVs) in Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF) regions have been associated with the risk of spermatogenic failure (SF), the precise frequency, genomic basis and clinical consequences of these CNVs remain unclear. Here we performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of 56 Japanese SF patients(More)
In this quantitative study, a competitive RT-PCR analysis was used to measure the level of the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in rat tongue muscle during the development of male Wistar rats aged 0, 5, 10, 15 and 21 postnatal days. There were differences between the expression of TR-alpha1 mRNA and the mRNAs for TR-beta1 and TR-beta2 in rat tongue muscle.(More)
Msx1 and Msx2 genes encode the homeodomain transcription factors. Several gene knockout mice and expression studies suggest that they possess functionally redundant roles in embryogenesis. In this study, we revealed that Msx1 and Msx2 were expressed during ventral body wall formation in an overlapping manner. Msx1/Msx2 double-mutant mice displayed embryonic(More)