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Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) respond to arterial wall injury by intimal proliferation and play a key role in atherogenesis by proliferating and migrating excessively in response to repeated injury, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. In contrast, fully differentiated, quiescent VSMCs allow arterial vasodilatation and vasoconstriction.(More)
Although glucagon (GLU) plays a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis, its role in the regulation of fetal growth and maturation is poorly understood. These issues were examined in a line of mice with a global deletion of the GLU receptor (Gcgr-/-), which are characterized by lower blood glucose levels and by alpha- and delta-cell hyperplasia in adults.(More)
Whereas it is believed that the pancreatic duct contains endocrine precursors, the presence of insulin progenitor cells residing in islets remain controversial. We tested whether pancreatic islets of adult mice contain precursor beta-cells that initiate insulin synthesis during aging and after islet injury. We used bigenic mice in which the activation of an(More)
PURPOSE Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic factor that induces extracellular matrix (ECM) production and angiogenesis, two processes involved in diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, we examined whether insulin therapy or a CTGF-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) administered to diabetic rats decreased the levels of CTGF and of(More)
It is well recognized that the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a key event in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and hypertension. We have previously shown that among extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs), the 42- and 44-kDa isoforms (ERK1/2) participate in the cellular mitogenic(More)
This investigation used primary cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells to examine angiotensin II (Ang II) regulation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (Na(+) pump) activity, and Na(+) pump alpha(1)- and beta(1)-subunit gene transcription. This regulation was mediated through both phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase(More)
The F11 receptor (F11R) is a cell adhesion molecule (CAM), member of the immunoglobulin superfamily found on the surface of human platelets, and determined to play a role in platelet aggregation, secretion, adhesion and spreading. The same molecule is present also at tight junctions of endothelial cells (EC) where it is known as JAM and acts as a CAM(More)
Intestinal cells synthesize and secrete chylomicrons in the postprandial state. Synthesis of these particles is defective in abetalipoproteinemia and chylomicron retention disease. Chylomicrons are very large, heterogeneous, lipid-rich particles ranging in diameters from 75 to 450 nm and function to transport dietary fat and fat-soluble vitamins to blood.(More)
Nestin, a marker of neural stem cells, is also expressed by cells located in the epithelium of the pancreatic primordium and by a subpopulation of exocrine cells but not by endocrine cells. These findings raised the possibility that the pancreatic epithelium is heterogeneous and comprised of subpopulations of exocrine/nestin-positive and(More)
The F11 receptor (F11R) was first identified on the surface of human platelets as a target for a stimulatory monoclonal antibody (M.Ab.F11) that induces secretion, followed by exposure of fibrinogen receptors and aggregation. Cloning of the gene of F11R has revealed that this protein is a cell adhesion molecule (CAM), a member of the Ig superfamily and an(More)