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The use of a panel of polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against West African isolates of rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) in ELISA resulted in separation of 73 RYMV isolates into three distinct serogroups. Using a set of differential rice varieties, the serogroups could be correlated to two RYMV pathotypes. A relationship was found(More)
Mosquitoes in the Anopheles gambiae complex show rapid ecological and behavioral diversification, traits that promote malaria transmission and complicate vector control efforts. A high-density, genome-wide mosquito SNP-genotyping array allowed mapping of genomic differentiation between populations and species that exhibit varying levels of reproductive(More)
The African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is polymorphic for alternative arrangements on the left arm of chromosome 2 (2La and 2L+(a)) that are non-randomly distributed with respect to degree of aridity. Detailed studies on the ecological role of inversion 2La have been hindered by the technical demands of traditional karyotype analysis and by sex- and(More)
Two new species within the Anopheles gambiae complex are here described and named. Based on molecular and bionomical evidence, the An. gambiae molecular "M form" is named Anopheles coluzzii Coetzee & Wilkerson sp. n., while the "S form" retains the nominotypical name Anopheles gambiae Giles. Anopheles quadriannulatus is retained for the southern African(More)
The role of chromosomal inversions in speciation has long been of interest to evolutionists. Recent quantitative modeling has stimulated reconsideration of previous conceptual models for chromosomal speciation. Anopheles gambiae, the most important vector of human malaria, carries abundant chromosomal inversion polymorphism nonrandomly associated with(More)
INTRODUCTION In the era of malaria elimination and eradication, drug-based and vaccine-based approaches to reduce malaria transmission are receiving greater attention. Such interventions require assays that reliably measure the transmission of Plasmodium from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes. METHODS WE COMPARED TWO COMMONLY USED MOSQUITO FEEDING ASSAY(More)
The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae is diversifying into ecotypes known as M and S forms. This process is thought to be promoted by adaptation to different larval habitats, but its genetic underpinnings remain elusive. To identify candidate targets of divergent natural selection in M and S, we performed genomewide scanning in paired population(More)
The malaria vector Anopheles gambiae maintains high levels of inversion polymorphism that facilitate its exploitation of diverse ecological settings across tropical Africa. Molecular characterization of inversion breakpoints is a first step toward understanding the processes that generate and maintain inversions. Here we focused on inversion 2Rj because of(More)
BACKGROUND Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in Africa and yet there are few genomic tools available for this species compared to An. gambiae. To start to close this knowledge gap, we sequenced the An. funestus transcriptome using cDNA libraries developed from a pyrethroid resistant laboratory strain and a pyrethroid susceptible field(More)
A new generation of strategies is evolving that aim to block malaria transmission by employing genetically modified vectors or mosquito pathogens or symbionts that express anti-parasite molecules. Whilst transgenic technologies have advanced rapidly, there is still a paucity of effector molecules with potent anti-malaria activity whose expression does not(More)