Malte Beringer

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While the long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) constitute a large portion of the mammalian transcriptome, their biological functions has remained elusive. A few long ncRNAs that have been studied in any detail silence gene expression in processes such as X-inactivation and imprinting. We used a GENCODE annotation of the human genome to characterize over a thousand(More)
Recent advances in genomic research have revealed the existence of a large number of transcripts devoid of protein-coding potential in multiple organisms. Although the functional role for long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been best defined in epigenetic phenomena such as X-chromosome inactivation and imprinting, different classes of lncRNAs may have varied(More)
To determine the effectiveness of the ribosome as a catalyst, we compared the rate of uncatalyzed peptide bond formation, by the reaction of the ethylene glycol ester of N-formylglycine with Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, with the rate of peptidyl transfer by the ribosome. Activation parameters were also determined for both reactions, from the temperature(More)
The ribosome catalyzes peptide bond formation between peptidyl-tRNA in the P site and aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site. Here, we show that the nature of the C-terminal amino acid residue in the P-site peptidyl-tRNA strongly affects the rate of peptidyl transfer. Depending on the C-terminal amino acid of the peptidyl-tRNA, the rate of reaction with the small(More)
Peptide bond formation is the main catalytic function of the ribosome. The mechanism of catalysis is presumed to be highly conserved in all organisms. We tested the conservation by comparing mechanistic features of the peptidyl transfer reaction on ribosomes from Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis. In both cases, the(More)
Ribosomes catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between aminoacyl esters of transfer RNAs within a catalytic center composed of ribosomal RNA only. Here we show that the reaction of P-site formylmethionine (fMet)-tRNA(fMet) with a modified A-site tRNA substrate, Phelac-tRNA(Phe), in which the nucleophilic amino group is replaced with a hydroxyl group,(More)
Peptide bond formation on the ribosome takes place in an active site composed of RNA. Recent progress of structural, biochemical, and computational approaches has provided a fairly detailed picture of the catalytic mechanism of the reaction. The ribosome accelerates peptide bond formation by lowering the activation entropy of the reaction due to positioning(More)
Protein synthesis in the ribosome's large subunit occurs within an active site comprised exclusively of RNA. Mutational studies of rRNA active site residues could provide valuable insight into the mechanism of peptide bond formation, but many of these mutations cause a dominant lethal phenotype, which prevents production of the homogeneous mutant ribosomes(More)
The major enzymatic activity of the ribosome is the catalysis of peptide bond formation. The active site -- the peptidyl transferase center -- is composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and interactions between rRNA and the reactants, peptidyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA, are crucial for the reaction to proceed rapidly and efficiently. Here, we describe the influence(More)