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At the 3' end of all retroviral genomes there is a short, highly conserved sequence known as the polypurine tract (PPT), which serves as the primer for plus-strand DNA synthesis. We have identified the determinants for in vitro priming by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) PPT. We show that when the PPT is removed and placed into different(More)
In order to investigate how primer grip residues of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) contribute toward the architecture of its palm subdomain and neighboring structural elements, the DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities of enzymes bearing aromatic substitutions at Trp229 and Tyr232 of the(More)
Alanine-scanning mutants of the primer grip region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase were tested for their ability to extend RNA and DNA versions of the polypurine tract primer, and an oligonucleotide representing the 18-nucleotide sequence at the 3' end of tRNALys3. A majority of the mutant enzymes were either completely or(More)
Of 2458 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae examined in a recent British survey, 42 were resistant to chloramphenicol. Two resistant isolates were of type b and 40 were non-capsulate. Spectrophotometric assay showed that all the resistant isolates produced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). CAT activity did not increase following growth on heated blood(More)
Between 1 January and 31 March 1991, 20 laboratories in England and Scotland sent a total of 413 consecutive clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis to The London Hospital Medical College (LHMC). After confirmation of identity, the susceptibility of all isolates to 11 antimicrobial agents was determined. Of the 375 (90.8%) isolates which were found at(More)
Four hundred and thirty-one Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1272 Haemophilus influenzae and 305 Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis were isolated from sputa and identified in 28 UK laboratories during a ten week period in 1990. Disc diffusion susceptibility testing was performed in each centre using identical methods. Species-specific susceptibility breakpoints(More)
During retrovirus replication, reverse transcriptase (RT) must specifically interact with the polypurine tract (PPT) to generate and subsequently remove the RNA primer for plus-strand DNA synthesis. We have investigated the role that human immunodeficiency virus-1 RT residues in the alphaH and alphaI helices in the thumb subdomain play in specific RNase H(More)
Twenty-two laboratories in England and Scotland sent 2212 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae to The London Hospital Medical College (LHMC) between 1 January and 31 March 1991. After confirmation of identity, the prevalence of resistance was determined and compared with results from previous similar surveys. beta-Lactamase was produced by 8.3% of(More)
PURPOSE This case study describes the collaboration between a state public health department, a major research university, and a health extension service funded as part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act to establish an interoperable health information system for disease surveillance through electronic(More)