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BACKGROUND We sought to determine whether infections with human coronaviruses (HCoVs) 229E, OC43, HKU1, and NL63 are associated with pneumonia and to define the epidemiology of HCoV infection in rural Thailand. METHODS We developed a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay panel for the recognized HCoV types and compared(More)
BACKGROUND Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a major cause of death among HIV-infected patients. Cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg+) in the absence of CM can represent early-stage cryptococcosis during which antifungal treatment might improve outcomes. However, patients without meningitis are rarely tested for cryptococcal infection. We evaluated Cryptococcus(More)
BACKGROUND The global burden of disease attributable to seasonal influenza virus in children is unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from lower respiratory infections associated with influenza in children younger than 5 years. METHODS We estimated the incidence of influenza episodes, influenza-associated acute lower(More)
The neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are an effective class of antiviral drugs for the treatment of influenza A and B infections. Until recently, only a low prevalence of NAI resistance (<1%) had been detected in circulating viruses. However, surveillance in Europe in late 2007 revealed significant numbers of A(H1N1) influenza strains with a H274Y(More)
BACKGROUND Data on the incidence, seasonality and mortality associated with influenza in subtropical low and middle income countries are limited. Prospective data from multiple years are needed to develop vaccine policy and treatment guidelines, and improve pandemic preparedness. METHODS During January 2005 through December 2008, we used an active,(More)
BACKGROUND We describe human rhinovirus (HRV) detections in SaKaeo province, Thailand. METHODS From September 1, 2003-August 31, 2005, we tested hospitalized patients with acute lower respiratory illness and outpatient controls without fever or respiratory symptoms for HRVs with polymerase chain reaction and molecularly-typed select HRVs. We compared HRV(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize influenza seasonality and identify the best time of the year for vaccination against influenza in tropical and subtropical countries of southern and south-eastern Asia that lie north of the equator. METHODS Weekly influenza surveillance data for 2006 to 2011 were obtained from Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, the Lao(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children globally, with the highest burden in low- and middle-income countries where the association between RSV activity and climate remains unclear. METHODS Monthly laboratory-confirmed RSV cases and associations with climate data were(More)
BACKGROUND We describe the epidemiology of hospitalized RSV infections for all age groups from population-based surveillance in two rural provinces in Thailand. METHODS From September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007, we enrolled hospitalized patients with acute lower respiratory tract illness, who had a chest radiograph ordered by the physician, from(More)