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BACKGROUND We sought to determine whether infections with human coronaviruses (HCoVs) 229E, OC43, HKU1, and NL63 are associated with pneumonia and to define the epidemiology of HCoV infection in rural Thailand. METHODS We developed a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay panel for the recognized HCoV types and compared(More)
BACKGROUND During 2004, a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus caused poultry disease in eight Asian countries and infected at least 44 persons, killing 32; most of these persons had had close contact with poultry. No evidence of efficient person-to-person transmission has yet been reported. We investigated possible person-to-person transmission(More)
The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses across Asia in 2003 and 2004 devastated domestic poultry populations and resulted in the largest and most lethal H5N1 virus outbreak in humans to date. To better understand the potential of H5N1 viruses isolated during this epizootic event to cause disease in mammals, we used the mouse and ferret(More)
BACKGROUND The global burden of disease attributable to seasonal influenza virus in children is unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from lower respiratory infections associated with influenza in children younger than 5 years. METHODS We estimated the incidence of influenza episodes, influenza-associated acute lower(More)
The unparalleled spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses has resulted in devastating outbreaks in domestic poultry and sporadic human infections with a high fatality rate. To better understand the mechanism(s) of H5N1 virus pathogenesis and host responses in humans, we utilized a polarized human bronchial epithelial cell model that(More)
BACKGROUND Regions of Thailand reported sporadic outbreaks of A/H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) among poultry between 2004 and 2008. Kamphaeng Phet Province, in north-central Thailand had over 50 HPAI poultry outbreaks in 2004 alone, and 1 confirmed and 2 likely other human HPAI infections between 2004 and 2006. METHODS In 2008, we enrolled(More)
BACKGROUND Few population-based estimates of the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in low- or middle-income countries are available. We describe the incidence and epidemiology of hospitalizations for RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) detected by active population-based surveillance in 2 rural Thailand(More)
BACKGROUND Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a major cause of death among HIV-infected patients. Cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg+) in the absence of CM can represent early-stage cryptococcosis during which antifungal treatment might improve outcomes. However, patients without meningitis are rarely tested for cryptococcal infection. We evaluated Cryptococcus(More)
Since December 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses have swept through poultry populations across Asian countries and been transmitted into African and European countries. We characterized 6 avian influenza H5N1 viruses isolated from humans in 2004 in Thailand. A highly pathogenic (HP) KAN353 strain showed faster replication and higher(More)
The neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are an effective class of antiviral drugs for the treatment of influenza A and B infections. Until recently, only a low prevalence of NAI resistance (<1%) had been detected in circulating viruses. However, surveillance in Europe in late 2007 revealed significant numbers of A(H1N1) influenza strains with a H274Y(More)