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BACKGROUND It has been suggested that statistical parsimony network analysis could be used to get an indication of species represented in a set of nucleotide data, and the approach has been used to discuss species boundaries in some taxa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Based on 635 base pairs of the mitochondrial protein-coding gene cytochrome c oxidase I(More)
We estimated the phylogenetic position of the pseudosegmented ribbon worm Annulonemertes minusculus to test proposed evolutionary hypotheses to explain these body constrictions. The analysis is based on 18S rDNA sequences and shows that the species belongs to an apomorphic clade of hoplonemertean species. The segmentation has no phylogenetic bearing as(More)
We compared the anatomy of the holotype of the palaeonemertean Cephalothrix simula ( Iwata, 1952 ) with that of the holotypes of Cephalothrix hongkongiensis Sundberg, Gibson and Olsson, 2003 and Cephalothrix fasciculus ( Iwata, 1952 ), as well as additional specimens from Fukue (type locality of C. simula) and Hiroshima, Japan. While there was no major(More)
Most nemerteans (phylum Nemertea) are free-living, but about 50 species are known to be firmly associated with other marine invertebrates. For example, Gononemertes parasita is associated with ascidians, and Nemertopsis tetraclitophila with barnacles. There are 12 complete or near-complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of nemerteans available(More)
Whereas many nemerteans (ribbon worms; phylum Nemertea) can be identified from external characters if observed alive, many are still problematic. When it comes to preserved specimens (as in e.g. marine inventories), there is a particular need for specimen identifier alternatives. Here, we evaluate the utility of COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) as a(More)
We test previous claims that the bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus produces tetrodotoxin (TTX) when living in symbiosis with the nemertean Lineus longissimus by a setup with bacteria cultivation for TTX production. Toxicity experiments on the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, demonstrated the presence of a paralytic toxin, but evidence from LC-MS and(More)
Nemerteans of the genus Malacobdella live inside of the mantle cavity of marine bivalves. The genus currently contains only six species, five of which are host-specific and usually found in a single host species, while the sixth species, M. grossa, has a wide host range and has been found in 27 different bivalve species to date. The main challenge of(More)
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