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INTRODUCTION Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic pain. Impaired growth hormone responses and reduced serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are common in FM. The aim was to examine changes in serum IGF-1, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuropeptides, and cytokines during aerobic exercise in FM patients. METHODS In total, 49 patients (median age,(More)
Estrogen exerts a variety of important physiological effects, which have been suggested to be mediated via the two known estrogen receptors (ERs), alpha and beta. Three-month-old ovariectomized mice, lacking one or both of the two estrogen receptors, were given estrogen subcutaneously (2.3 micro g/mouse per day) and the effects on different(More)
Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator approved for prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It is selective by virtue of having estrogen agonistic effects in bone, vessels, and blood lipids, while it is antagonistic with mammary and uterine tissue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the raloxifene analogue LY117018 (LY)(More)
Oestrogens affect the development and regulation of the immune system. To determine the role of oestrogen receptors alpha (ER-alpha) and beta (ER-beta) on the development of the immune system, male ER-alpha (ERKO) and ER-beta (BERKO) mice, as well as alphabeta-double knockout (DERKO) mice, were studied. Deletion of ER-alpha led to hypoplasia of both thymus(More)
Generalized osteoporosis in postmenopausal rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is caused both by estrogen deficiency and by the inflammatory disease. The relative importance of each of these factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of osteoporosis in postmenopausal RA, and to evaluate the relative importance and mechanisms of(More)
The isoflavone genistein (Gen) is a naturally occurring phytoestrogen found in high concentrations in soy. The biological effects of Gen have been extensively studied. The immunomodulating properties of Gen are, however, less well investigated and the results are contradictory. Our aim was to study possible estrogen agonistic and antagonistic properties of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the potential of metastasin S100A4 as a biological marker in patients with RA. METHODS A total of 87 unselected patients with established RA (disease duration 2-44 years) and treated with MTX and infliximab at a single rheumatology centre were included in a cross-sectional study. Radiographs of hands and feet were taken prior to(More)
Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator approved for the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It is selective by having estrogen-agonistic effects on bone, vessels and blood lipids while it is antagonistic on mammary and uterine tissue. Our aim was to study the agonistic and antagonistic properties of the raloxifene analogue(More)
Estrogens are important for the male skeleton. Osteopro-tegerin (OPG), receptor activator of NF-B ligand (RANKL), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been suggested to be involved in the skeletal effects of estrogen. We treated orchidectomized mice with estradiol for 2 weeks and observed a 143% increase in the trabecular bone(More)
Oestrogen treatment down-regulates B lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow of mice. Meanwhile it up-regulates immunoglobulin production. To understand better the oestrogen action on bone marrow male mice lacking oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha; ERKO mice), lacking ERbeta (BERKO mice), lacking both receptors (DERKO mice) or wild-type (wt) littermates were(More)