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Gene transfer into muscle upon injection of plasmid DNA is feasible but occurs with low frequency. However, by using electroporation after injection of plasmid DNA into mouse muscle it has been demonstrated that gene expression can be increased more than 150-fold. In this communication, we have used this technique in combination with plasmids containing a(More)
The majority of human melanomas harbor activating mutations in either the BRAF or NRAS gene. To date, the role of oncogenic NRAS in melanoma remains poorly defined and no current therapies are directed at specifically suppressing oncogenic NRAS in human melanoma tumors. The aim of our study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of suppressing oncogenic(More)
BACKGROUND Germline alterations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) are important genetic factors in familial predisposition to melanoma. Activating mutations of the NRAS proto-oncogene are among the most common somatic genetic alterations in cutaneous malignant melanomas. We investigated the occurrence of NRAS mutations in melanomas and(More)
We hypothesised that angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), in conjunction with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene therapy, can enhance arteriogenesis and angiogenesis during myocardial ischemia. Mice were given a single intramyocardial injection of saline, phVEGF-A(165) and phAng-1 or a combination thereof into the non-ischemic normal heart or into the(More)
Transfer of genes encoding therapeutic proteins into the myocardium shows great potential for treatment of coronary artery disease. To quantitatively elucidate the behavior of plasmid DNA following cardiac gene transfer, time kinetics, dose-response relationship, systemic spread to the liver, and the influence of different promoters on plasmid DNA gene(More)
Activating mutations in the NRAS gene, which occur predominantly in codon 61 (Q61R, Q61K) are among the most common genetic events in malignant melanoma. NRAS protein with oncogenic codon 61 mutations may therefore be good therapeutic targets. In the present study, we used gene expression profiling as a method for global characterization of gene expression(More)
Exposure to UV radiation likely plays a key role in melanoma development, whereas other etiologic agents remain unknown. Here we show that in normal human skin an increased expression of a combination of three growth factors, basic fibroblast growth factor, stem cell factor, and endothelin-3, along with exposure to UVB can transform normal melanocytes into(More)
For clinically relevant studies on melanoma progression and invasiveness, in vivo experimental systems with a human cellular microenvironment would be advantageous. We have compared tumor formation from a human cutaneous malignant melanoma cell line (BL), after injection as conventional xenografts in the mouse, or when injected into a predominantly(More)
Exposure to UV radiation likely plays a key role in melanoma development , whereas other etiologic agents remain unknown. Here we show that in normal human skin an increased expression of a combination of three growth factors, basic fibroblast growth factor, stem cell factor, and endothelin-3, along with exposure to UVB can transform normal melano-cytes(More)
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