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BACKGROUND One controversial source of infection for hepatitis C virus (HCV) involves the sharing of contaminated implements, such as straws or spoons, used to nasally inhale cocaine and other powdered drugs. An essential precondition for this mode of transmission is the presence of HCV in the nasal secretions of intranasal drug users. METHODS Blood and(More)
Lymphotropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), including HTLV-IIIB, replicate poorly in macrophages. We have shown previously that lymphotropic HIV-1 fuses equally well with T lymphocytes and macrophages (M. J. Potash, M. Zeira, Z.-B. Huang, T. Pearce, E. Eden, H. Gendelman, and D. J. Volsky, Virology 188:864-868, 1992), suggesting(More)
Genes displaying altered expression as a function of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection of cultured primary human fetal astrocytes (PHFA) were previously identified using a rapid subtraction hybridization (RaSH) method. This scheme identified both known and novel genes displaying elevated expression, astrocyte elevated genes (AEG), and decreased(More)
Productive, spreading infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the viral protein Vif. To study the requirement for vif in this system, we infected PBL with a phenotypically complemented HIV-1 clone mutated in vif. Progeny virus was produced which was noninfectious in PBL but replicated in(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates efficiently in nonproliferating monocytes and macrophages but not in resting primary T lymphocytes. To determine the contribution of cell division to the HIV-1 replicative cycle in T cells, we evaluated HIV-1 expression, integration of proviral DNA, and production of infectious progeny virus in C8166(More)
It is thought that interference during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is established by downmodulation of the principal virus receptor, CD4. Here we present evidence to the contrary. At various times after primary infection, we superinfected T cells in vitro by exposure to a genetically distinct viral clone or to a virus carrying the(More)
Linker histone H1B (H1B) coeluted with an antiviral activity during the purification of HIV-1 resistance factor (HRF) from supernatants of HRF(+) cells. Western blot analysis of the supernatant using alpha-H1 and alpha-ubiquitin antibodies detected the same band of roughly 46 kDa; this band was absent from the control supernatant. Depletion of histone from(More)
Intranasal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) via contaminated drug-sniffing implements is a potential but unconfirmed source of viral infection. We demonstrate the virological plausibility of intranasal transmission by confirming that blood and HCV RNA are present in the nasal secretions and drug-sniffing implements of HCV-infected intranasal drug(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif is required for productive infection of T lymphocytes and macrophages. Virions produced in the absence of Vif have abnormal core morphology and those produced in primary T cells carry immature core proteins and low levels of mature capsid (M. Simm, M. Shahabuddin, W. Chao, J. S. Allan, and D. J. Volsky, J.(More)