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One controversial source of infection for hepatitis C virus (HCV) involves the sharing of contaminated implements, such as straws or spoons, used to nasally inhale cocaine and other powdered drugs. An essential precondition for this mode of transmission is the presence of HCV in the nasal secretions of intranasal drug users. Blood and nasal secretion(More)
The auxiliary protein Vif is essential for productive HIV-1 infection of primary lymphocytes and macrophages. Vif is required for the synthesis of infectious progeny virus and infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) by Vif-negative HIV-1 was thought to be confined to a single cycle. Here we define conditions for the maintenance of Vif-negative(More)
Lymphotropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), including HTLV-IIIB, replicate poorly in macrophages. We have shown previously that lymphotropic HIV-1 fuses equally well with T lymphocytes and macrophages (M. J. Potash, M. Zeira, Z.-B. Huang, T. Pearce, E. Eden, H. Gendelman, and D. J. Volsky, Virology 188:864-868, 1992), suggesting(More)
An HIV-1 resistant T cell clone R1c2 has been generated that carries mutant, latent HIV-1 in a minority of the cell population. Resistant cells express HIV-1 receptors CD4 and CXCR4 and display resistance to infection by wild type (wt) HIV-1 at the level of virus transcription. To begin to define the repertoire of genes modulated in R1c2 cells that(More)
Genes displaying altered expression as a function of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection of cultured primary human fetal astrocytes (PHFA) were previously identified using a rapid subtraction hybridization (RaSH) method. This scheme identified both known and novel genes displaying elevated expression, astrocyte elevated genes (AEG), and decreased(More)
The identity and activity of several anti-HIV soluble factor(s) secreted by CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes have been determined; however, some of them still await definition. We have established an HIV-1-resistant, transformed CD4 T cell line that secretes HIV-1 resistance protein(s). Our studies indicate that this protein(s), called HIV-1 resistance factor(More)
It is thought that interference during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is established by downmodulation of the principal virus receptor, CD4. Here we present evidence to the contrary. At various times after primary infection, we superinfected T cells in vitro by exposure to a genetically distinct viral clone or to a virus carrying the(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates efficiently in nonproliferating monocytes and macrophages but not in resting primary T lymphocytes. To determine the contribution of cell division to the HIV-1 replicative cycle in T cells, we evaluated HIV-1 expression, integration of proviral DNA, and production of infectious progeny virus in C8166(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif is required for productive infection of T lymphocytes and macrophages. Virions produced in the absence of Vif have abnormal core morphology and those produced in primary T cells carry immature core proteins and low levels of mature capsid (M. Simm, M. Shahabuddin, W. Chao, J. S. Allan, and D. J. Volsky, J.(More)
Productive, spreading infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the viral protein Vif. To study the requirement for vif in this system, we infected PBL with a phenotypically complemented HIV-1 clone mutated in vif. Progeny virus was produced which was noninfectious in PBL but replicated in(More)