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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate: 1) The prevalence of human papillomavirus (types 6 and 11 carrying a low risk of neoplasia, and type 16 implicated as cause of cervical neoplasia and cancer) in normal pregnant women and pregnant renal transplant recipients. 2) The correlation between maternal HPV infection and HPV presence in the cord blood(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus, both types of a low oncogenic risk (HPV 6, 11) and a type carrying a high oncogenic risk (HPV 16) in the genital tract of the pregnant patients, their venous blood, the cord blood and the oral cavities of the neonates. Normal pregnant women and pregnant women with insulin(More)
Canine mammary gland has been identified as a major site of the extrapituitary growth hormone (GH) production. This finding is linked to its role in tumourigenesis of the mammary gland. Our previous studies indicated the role of GH and GH receptor (GHR) in regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. Thus, we have optimized the ghr RNA interference method in(More)
We hypothesized that α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and β-carotene, either applied individually or in combination, would modulate redox homeostasis and affect the regulation of genes involved in DNA repair under stress conditions. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the influence of these vitamins, either supplied individually or in combination, on the(More)
Mammary gland growth and involution are based on a dynamic equilibrium between proliferation and apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells (MEC). The main type of cell death responsible for bovine mammary gland involution is apoptosis, but MEC also exhibit morphological features of autophagy. The present study has been undertaken in order to examine factors,(More)
The purpose of the study was to examine mechanisms controlling cell cycle progression/arrest and differentiation of mouse C2C12 myoblasts exposed to long-chain saturated fatty acid salt, palmitate. Treatment of proliferating myoblasts with palmitate (0.1 mmol/l) markedly decreased myoblast number. Cyclin A and cyclin D1 levels decreased, whereas total p21(More)
Mammary gland growth and involution is based on a dynamic equilibrium between proliferation and apoptosis of mammary gland epithelial cells (MEC). TGF-beta1 is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor for mammary gland epithelial cells, acting in auto/paracrine matter and thus considered an important local regulator of mammary tissue(More)
The bovine mammary gland undergoes intensive remodelling during the lactation cycle, and the escalation of this process is observed during dry periods. The main type of cell death responsible for bovine mammary gland involution is apoptosis; however, there are also a lot of cells exhibiting morphological features of autophagy during drying off. Our in vitro(More)
Apoptosis - programmed cell death (PCD) type I is physiological process responsible for cell loss during mammary gland involution after natural weaning or litter removal in rodents, after weaning in sow and during drying off in goat and cow. The regulation of mammary epithelial cell (MEC) apoptosis in bovine mammary gland occurs at three levels. The first(More)