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OBJECTIVE To investigate the levels of the T helper (Th)17-related cytokines interleukin 17A (IL-17A), IL-21, and IL-23 and their association with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS In a longitudinal sample set from patients with early RA (< 6 months; n = 40), we measured the plasma cytokine levels of IL-17A, IL-21, and IL-23 and(More)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease associated with a T(H)2 response and increased levels of T(H)2-associated cytokines and IgE. The mechanisms resulting in skewing the immune response in a T(H)2 direction in AD are not fully elucidated. However, such skewing has recently been associated with IL-25 in a murine model for allergic airway disease.(More)
TLR3 and TLR9 recognize the pathogen-associated microbial patterns dsRNA and unmethylated DNA, respectively. The recent discovery that these receptors also recognize endogenous ligands from necrotic material has drawn increased attention to their involvement in autoimmunity. Th cell cytokines IL-17A and IL-21 have been assigned with pivotal roles in the(More)
In osteoimmunology, osteoclastogenesis is understood in the context of the immune system. Today, the in vitro model for osteoclastogenesis necessitates the addition of recombinant human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The peripheral joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis(More)
Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with severe Fallopian tube tissue damage leading to tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. To explore the molecular mechanisms behind infection an ex vivo model was established from human Fallopian tubes and examined by scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Extensive tissue destruction(More)
The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) involves an abnormal chemokine regulation. The chemokine receptor CCR4 is necessary for T cell migration to the skin. We, therefore, studied if CCR4 and its ligand macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) could participate in spreading the disease between skin and joints by(More)
Caspase 14 is a unique member of the cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase family. Its expression is confined primarily to cornified epithelium such as the skin. Caspase 14 has been associated with the processing of filaggrin monomers and the development of natural moisturising factors of the skin, and thus, it could be speculated that caspase 14(More)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing skin disease characterized by having both an epidermal and a dermal component, shown as a barrier deficiency and inflammation. The mechanisms resulting in skewing the immune response in a Th2 direction in AD are still not fully elucidated. We suggest that IL-25 could be a major target in AD. IL-25 is produced by(More)
We have investigated the role of the Th17-related cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-21, and IL-23 in spondyloarthritis (SpA) by examining their association with disease activity and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with SpA (n = 80). Furthermore, to investigate the cellular origins of the cytokines, paired mononuclear cells from(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) are chronic diseases characterized by activation of the immune system and production of antibodies. Thus, rheumatoid factor, anti-animal IgG antibodies and heterophilic antibodies in plasma samples from arthritis patients can interfere with immunoassays such as sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(More)