Malek Bajbouj

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BACKGROUND Several lines of evidence suggest that central cortical inhibitory mechanisms, especially associated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission, may play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a useful tool for investigating central cortical inhibitory mechanisms associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is associated with a decrease in seizure frequency in partial-onset seizure patients. Initial trials suggest that it may be an effective treatment, with few side-effects, for intractable depression. METHOD An open, uncontrolled European multi-centre study (D03) of VNS therapy was conducted, in addition to(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic changes after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been described in depressed patients, but results are heterogeneous. To determine the concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds, creatine + phosphocreatine (tCr), and glutamate in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left anterior cingulum(More)
INTRODUCTION Brain imaging studies have linked the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to motivation, drive, and personality traits like novelty and sensation seeking. Animal studies have shown glutamatergic neurotransmission to be important in ACC function as well as motivated behaviour. However, the role of glutamate in related personality traits like(More)
The sensorimotor neuropathy of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type (CMT) is the most common hereditary disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The X-linked dominant form of CMT (CMTX) is associated with mutations in the gene for the gap junction protein connexin32. We examined four CMTX pedigrees two of which had potentially novel mutations in the only coding(More)
There remains much scientific, clinical, and ethical controversy concerning the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for psychiatric disorders stemming from a lack of information and knowledge about how such treatment might work, given its nonspecific and spatially unfocused nature. The mode of action of ECT has even been ascribed to a "barbaric" form of(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the relevance of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in clinical settings, there is currently no empirical data available regarding the neurobiological correlates of NPD. In the present study, we performed a voxel-based morphometric analysis to provide initial insight into local abnormalities of gray matter (GM) volume. METHODS(More)
The insula has been identified as a key region involved in interoceptive awareness. Whilst imaging studies have investigated the neural activation patterns in this region involved in intero- and exteroceptive awareness, the underlying biochemical mechanisms still remain unclear. In order to investigate these, a well-established fMRI task targeting(More)
BACKGROUND Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex was used to study two cortically activated inhibitory neuronal mechanisms that suppress ongoing tonic voluntary electromyographic activity in contralateral (postexcitatory inhibition [PI]) and ipsilateral (transcallosal inhibition [TI]) hand muscles. The PI follows the(More)
Attention deficits have been consistently described in schizophrenia. Functional neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have focused on anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) dysfunction as a possible mediator. However, recent basic research has suggested that the effect of attention is also observed as a relative amplification of activity in(More)