Malcolm Spain

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A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of etodolac in serum was developed. The limit of detection was 0.2 microgram/ml. The specificity of the method was demonstrated by the lack of response obtained with a variety of control sera, sera spiked with etodolac congeners, and sera obtained from rats treated with a(More)
Samarium(II) iodide (SmI(2)) is one of the most important reducing agents in organic synthesis. Synthetic chemistry promoted by SmI(2) depends on the efficient and reliable preparation of the reagent. Unfortunately, users can experience difficulties preparing the reagent, and this has prevented realization of the full synthetic potential of SmI(2). To(More)
The first general method for efficient electron transfer reduction of carboxylic acids has been developed. The protocol using SmI(2)-H(2)O-Et(3)N allows for reduction of a variety of carboxylic acids in excellent yields and provides an attractive alternative to processes mediated by reactive alkali metals, lithium aluminum hydride, and boron hydrides. Of(More)
Samarium diiodide (SmI(2)) is one of the most important reductive electron transfer reagents available in the laboratory. Key to the popularity of SmI(2) is the ability of additives and co-solvents to tune the properties of the reagent. Over the last decade water has emerged as a particularly valuable additive, opening up new chemical space and leading to(More)
Unsaturated lactones undergo reductive radical cyclizations upon treatment with SmI(2)-H(2)O to give decorated cycloheptanes in a single highly selective operation during which up to three contiguous stereocenters are generated. Furthermore, cascade processes involving lactones bearing two alkenes, an alkene and an alkyne, or an allene and an alkene allow(More)
Since the 1864 landmark discovery by Adolf von Baeyer, barbituric acids have played a prominent role in medicine and organic synthesis. The barbituric acid scaffold occurs in more than 5000 pharmacologically active compounds, including commonly used anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and anticancer agents (Figure 1a). Moreover, as an easily accessible feedstock(More)
Substrate-directable reactions play a pivotal role in organic synthesis, but are uncommon in reactions proceeding via radical mechanisms. Herein, we provide experimental evidence showing dramatic rate acceleration in the Sm(II)-mediated reduction of cyclic esters that is enabled by transient chelation between a directing group and the lanthanide center.(More)
Recently, samarium(II) iodide reductants have emerged as powerful single electron donors for the highly chemoselective reduction of common functional groups. Complete control of the product formation can be achieved on the basis of a judicious choice of a Sm(II) complex/proton donor couple, even in the presence of extremely sensitive functionalities(More)