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Tissue-to-plasma water partition coefficients (Kpu's) form an integral part of whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WBPBPK) models. This research aims to improve the predictability of Kpu values for moderate-to-strong bases (pK(a) > or = 7), by developing a mechanistic equation that accommodates the unique electrostatic interactions of such(More)
A key component of whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WBPBPK) models is the tissue-to-plasma water partition coefficients (Kpu's). The predictability of Kpu values using mechanistically derived equations has been investigated for 7 very weak bases, 20 acids, 4 neutral drugs and 8 zwitterions in rat adipose, bone, brain, gut, heart, kidney,(More)
To use recently developed mechanistic equations to predict tissue-to-plasma water partition coefficients (Kpus), apply these predictions to whole body unbound volume of distribution at steady state (Vuss) determinations, and explain the differences in the extent of drug distribution both within and across the various compound classes. Vuss values were(More)
Tissue water content was determined by desiccation to constant weight at 40 degrees-50 degrees C in 14 tissues from two groups of rats weighing 200-250 and 270-430 g, respectively. The water content (mean +/- SE; ml/g) was highest in testes (0.861 +/- 0.002) and lowest in adipose (0.183 +/- 0.017) followed by bone (0.446 +/- 0.017) and skin (0.651 +/-(More)
A dispersion model of hepatic elimination, based on the residence time distribution of blood elements within the liver, is presented. The general rate equations appropriate for describing the hepatic output concentration of a tracer solute are derived. Particular consideration is given to events following a bolus input dose of a tracer. The model is shown(More)
The purpose of this research was to identify the major factors controlling the distribution of beta-blockers (acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol and timolol) in rats, across tissues, compounds and enantiomers. Tissue distribution was assessed at steady state by infusing cassette doses of beta-blockers into the(More)
Two commonly used models of hepatic drug clearance are examined. The “well-stirred” model (model I) views the liver as a well-stirred compartment with concentration of drug in the liver in equilibrium with that in the emergent blood. The “parallel tube” model (model II) regards the liver as a series of parallel tubes with enzymes distributed evenly around(More)
A physiologic pharmacokinetic model of cyclosporin has been developed in the rat aimed at predicting the time course of drug concentrations in blood, organs, and tissues. The model assumes that tissue distribution is perfusion-rate limited and that each tissue acts as a well-stirred compartment. The unbound equilibrium distribution ratios as well as the(More)
1. The disposition of warfarin enantiomers and metabolites has been studied in 36 patients receiving chronic rac-warfarin therapy, titrated to approximately the same anticoagulant response. 2. A stereoselective h.p.l.c. assay was employed to determine the concentrations of (R)- and (S)-warfarin, (R,S)-warfarin alcohol and (S)-7-hydroxywarfarin in plasma and(More)
The kinetics of a drug eliminated by first-order processes in a perfusion-limited isolated perfused organ system are examined. In this model, the mean clearance, determined by dividing the dose by the area under the blood concentration profile, and the steady-state clearance are shown to be equal. The perfusion model and the compartmental model are compared(More)