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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000, the highest of any developed country in the world. This(More)
Recent studies indicate the existence of progenitor cells and their potential for neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the hippocampus of the normal adult mammalian brain. However, the proliferative response and the specific cell types generated following traumatic brain injury have not been examined. This cellular response to CNS injury was(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem, and there is a great medical need for a pharmacological treatment that could improve long-term outcome. The excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, has been implicated in processes leading to neurodegeneration. Traxoprodil (CP-101,606) is a novel and potent glutamate receptor antagonist(More)
Stem/progenitor cells reside throughout the adult CNS and are actively dividing in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. This neurogenic capacity of the SVZ and DG is enhanced following traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggesting that the adult brain has the inherent potential to restore populations lost to injury. This(More)
The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI), the consequences of which are manifested as learning and memory deficits. Following injury, substantive spontaneous cognitive recovery occurs, suggesting that innate repair mechanisms exist in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism contributing to this is largely unknown. The(More)
It is well known that the cognitive functions of juveniles recover to a greater extent than adult patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The exact mechanisms underlying this age-related disparity are unknown; however, we speculate that this improved recovery in juveniles following TBI may be associated with an endogenous neurogenic response in the(More)
INDICATIONS FOR SURGERY An acute subdural hematoma (SDH) with a thickness greater than 10 mm or a midline shift greater than 5 mm on computed tomographic (CT) scan should be surgically evacuated, regardless of the patient's Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. All patients with acute SDH in coma (GCS score less than 9) should undergo intracranial pressure (ICP)(More)
OBJECT The effect of normobaric hyperoxia (fraction of inspired O2 [FIO2] concentration 100%) in the treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of normobaric hyperoxia on five cerebral metabolic indices, which have putative prognostic significance following TBI in(More)
CONTINUOUS OXYGEN DELIVERY and CO(2) clearance are paramount in the maintenance of normal brain function and tissue integrity. Under normal conditions, aerobic metabolism is the major source of energy in the brain, but this system may be compromised by the interruption of substrate delivery and disturbances in cerebral metabolism. These disruptions are(More)
INTRODUCTION Authors of several studies have studied biomarkers and computed tomography (CT) findings in the acute phase after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the correlation between structural damage as assessed by neuroimaging and biomarkers has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among neuronal(More)