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To elucidate endogenous mechanisms underlying cerebral damage during ischemia, brain polyamine oxidase activity was measured in rats subjected to permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Brain polyamine oxidase activity was increased significantly within 2 h after the onset of ischemia in brain homogenates (15.8 +/- 0.9 nmol/h/mg protein) as(More)
Cerebral ischemia induces a rapid and dramatic up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) protein and mRNA, but the cellular sources of TNF in the ischemic brain have not been defined. The diverse activities of TNF are mediated via ligand interaction with two distinct receptors, p55 and p75, which activate separate intracellular signal transduction(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE During a cerebral infarction, a complex cascade of cytotoxic events ultimately determines the volume of brain cell loss. The studies presented here demonstrate that aminoguanidine, an experimental therapeutic currently in clinical trials to prevent diabetic complications, is cerebroprotective in focal cerebral infarction. METHODS(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the treatment effects of nonextraction edgewise therapy combined with cervical headgear on Class II, Division 1 malocclusions. Data from a sample of 43 treated patients with a mean age of 11 years 11 months and a mean treatment time of 2 years 8 months were recorded. A cephalometric appraisal was done and the(More)
Cerebral infarction (stroke) is a potentially disastrous complication of diabetes mellitus, principally because the extent of cortical loss is greater in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients. The etiology of this enhanced neurotoxicity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which have previously been(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO), a small effector molecule produced enzymatically from L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is a mediator not only of important homeostatic mechanisms (e.g., blood vessel tone and tissue perfusion), but also of key aspects of local and systemic inflammatory responses. Previous efforts to develop inhibitors of NOS to(More)
This study examined the effect of lingual root torque during the third stage of Begg treatment upon the maxillary central incisor, hard-tissue Point A, and soft-tissue Point A. Lateral cephalograms were taken, at the beginning and end of Stage III, of eighteen patients undergoing Begg treatment. Linear and angular measurements were made in an attempt to(More)
Two contrasting roles, one beneficial and the injurious, have been proposed for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Reported here are results obtained in a standard model of permanent focal cortical ischemia in rats, in which the volume of cerebral infarction is measured after permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral(More)
The reliability of a commercially available computer prediction program (Quick Ceph II) was evaluated using pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms of 30 patients who were treated during an active period of growth. The computer prediction was compared with the actual treatment result, and the growth forecast with the computer program was compared with(More)
Initial and final cephalometric evaluations are compared in a sample of 42 patients with Class II malocclusions treated in a nonextraction manner with the Begg appliance. The sample was analyzed as a group. Subgroups of patients with Division 1 and Division 2 characteristics were analyzed separately. To depict skeletal and dental changes, measurements were(More)