Malcolm H. Lader

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BACKGROUND The use of psychotropic medications and its association with sleep and psychiatric and physical illnesses were studied in the general population. METHOD A cross-sectional telephone survey was carried out using the Sleep-EVAL knowledge-base system. A representative sample of the noninstitutionalized general populations of France, Germany, Italy,(More)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the pharmacological treatment of choice for the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The efficacy and tolerability of fixed doses of escitalopram were compared to those of placebo in the long-term treatment of generalised SAD, using paroxetine as an active reference. Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of SAD(More)
The effects on memory, psychomotor functions and mood of intramuscular scopolamine (0.3 mg, 0.6 mg) were compared with those of oral lorazepam (2 mg) and placebo. Thirty-six volunteers took part in a doubleblind, independent groups design. Subjects completed a battery of tests 1 and 3 h after drug administration. Both doses of scopolamine produced levels of(More)
The effects of single doses of anhydrous caffeine (250 mg and 500 mg) and placebo on physiological, psychological measures and subjective feelings were studied in a double-blind, cross-over study in nine healthy subjects who had abstained from caffeine-containing beverages for 24 h before each occasion. Caffeine and caffeine metabolites in plasma and urine(More)
A technique is described which elicits hostility via provocation in a competitive reaction time task incorporating a predetermined failure rate of 50%. When the subject loses he is exposed to a white noise which increases in intensity through the experiment. When he wins he is able to administer one of 8 levels of noise to his opponent. Heart rate and skin(More)
The effects of single doses of CL284,846 (20 mg), lorazepam (2 mg) and placebo on psychomotor performance, memory function and subjective feelings were assessed in 12 normal, healthy male volunteers. Each subject received each treatment in balanced order and a minimum of 6 days was left between treatments. The subjects performance on a comprehensive battery(More)
AIMS To re-examine various aspects of the benzodiazepines (BZDs), widely prescribed for 50 years, mainly to treat anxiety and insomnia. It is a descriptive review based on the Okey Lecture delivered at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, in November 2010. METHODS A search of the literature was carried out in the Medline, Embase and(More)
In view of the very extensive and often prolonged use of benzodiazepines in therapeutic practice, this study was designed to investigate whether or not cognitive ability is impaired in long-term benzodiazepine users, and to determine the nature and extent of any deficit. Fifty patients currently taking benzodiazepines for at least one year, thirty-four who(More)
The degree to which apparent amnesic effects of various centrally acting drugs are secondary to their effects on arousal remains a contentious issue. The present study uses two methods to dissociate memory and arousal effects of the cholinergic antagonist, scopolamine (SP), and the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor agonist, lorazepam (LZ). First, it compared(More)
Rationale: The response to caffeine is affected by a number of factors, including age. Older subjects may be more sensitive to the objective effects than younger but report fewer subjective effects. Objective: This study assessed the influence of age on the effects of caffeine on a variety of psychomotor, cognitive and subjective tests. Methods: Forty-eight(More)