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In this study two aspects of hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) orthoses were investigated: joint motion constraints and FES control strategies. First, the effects of joint motion constraints on the gait of normal subjects were investigated using modern motion analysis systems, including electromyogram (EMG) and heart rate measurements. An(More)
The benefits of a functional electrical stimulation (FES) gait programme were assessed in a group of 6 incomplete spinal cord injured subjects. Measurements were made of quadriceps spasticity, lower limb muscle strength, postural stability in standing, spatial and temporal values of gait, physiological cost of gait and independence in activities of daily(More)
This study investigated the possibility of using uni-axial gyroscopes to develop a simple portable gait analysis system. Gyroscopes were attached on the skin surface of the shank and thigh segments and the angular velocity for each segment was recorded in each segment. Segment inclinations and knee angle were derived from segment angular velocities. The(More)
In the restoration of gait for paraplegics using functional electrical stimulation, the method most commonly used to produce hip flexion for the swing phase of gait has been the elicitation of the flexion withdrawal response. Several problems have been noted with the response: there is a decrease in the magnitude of the hip flexion to repeated stimuli(More)
Limitations of mechanical walking orthoses for paraplegics are high energy consumption and upper limb loading. Flexing of the knee during swing phase has been used as a means of attempting to reduce these. It has been found that this has little effect because using knee flexion results in no change in the compensatory mechanisms required for swing foot(More)
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the upper limb has been used for patients with a variety of neurological conditions, although few studies have been conducted on its use on the upper limb of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cyclic FES on the wrist extensor muscles of a group of eight(More)
Monitoring upper-limb activity in a free-living environment is important for the evaluation of rehabilitation. This study is a validation of the Strathclyde Upper-Limb Activity Monitor (SULAM) which records the vertical movement and position of each wrist, and assesses bimanual movement. Agreement between the SULAM and two independent video observers was(More)
This study investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES), applied during walking, on the gait of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Eight children (five males, three females; mean age 13y 2mo, SD 2y 2m; range 8y 11mo to 17y 6mo) diagnosed with diplegic (n=6) or hemiplegic (n=2) spastic CP completed the study. All participants(More)