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We use atom-tracking scanning tunneling microscopy to study the diffusion of Pd in the Pd/Cu(001) surface alloy as a function of temperature. By following the motion of individual Pd atoms incorporated in the surface, we show that Pd diffuses by a vacancy-exchange mechanism. We measure an activation energy for the diffusion of incorporated Pd atoms of 0.88(More)
INTRODUCTION To what extent is constitutional judicial review a necessary institution for protecting property rights? Nearly all American jurists, since Madison, have thought the answer to this question both obvious and incontestible: in the absence of judicial review, federal and state governments would trample private property rights into dust. Recently,(More)
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