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We have identified a novel growth factor in Xenopus, which is most closely related to human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-3. Its expression peaks during gastrulation, most prominently in the Spemann organizer, and persists in the posterior neural floor plate and prechordal plate during neurulation. Injection of the corresponding mRNA into dorsal blastomeres(More)
The mammalian zona pellucida is an extracellular matrix that surrounds growing oocytes, ovulated eggs and early embryos. The mouse zona is composed of three sulfated glycoproteins: ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3. Each is critically involved in fertilization, the postfertilization block to polyspermy and protection of the preimplantation embryo. We have previously(More)
We isolated a Xenopus homolog of Frzb, a newly described protein containing an amino-terminal Frizzled motif. It dorsalized Xenopus embryos and was expressed in the Spemann organizer during early gastrulation. Unlike Frizzled proteins, endogenous Frzb was soluble. Frzb was secretable and could act across cell boundaries. In several functional assays, Frzb(More)
Partially purified extracts from newborn calf articular cartilage were found to induce cartilage and bone when subcutaneously implanted in rats. This activity showed characteristics of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Degenerate oligonucleotide primer sets derived from the highly conserved carboxyl-terminal region of the BMP family were designed and used(More)
Convincing evidence has accumulated to identify the Frizzled proteins as receptors for the Wnt growth factors. In parallel, a number of secreted frizzled-like proteins with a conserved N-terminal frizzled motif have been identified. One of these proteins, Frzb-1, binds Wnt-1 and Xwnt-8 proteins and antagonizes Xwnt-8 signaling in Xenopus embryos. Here we(More)
Articular cartilage extracts were prepared to characterize protein fractions with in vivo chondrogenic activity (Chang, S., Hoang, B., Thomas, J. T., Vukicevic, S., Luyten, F. P., Ryba, N. J. P., Kozak, C. A., Reddi, A. H., and Moos, M. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 28227-28234). Trypsin digestion of highly purified chondrogenic protein fractions allowed the(More)
Recent advances in developmental biology, systems biology, and network science are converging to poise the heretofore largely empirical field of tissue engineering on the brink of a metamorphosis into a rigorous discipline based on universally accepted engineering principles of quality by design. Failure of more simplistic approaches to the manufacture of(More)
Pseudotype reporter viruses provide a safe, quantitative, and high-throughput tool for assessing antibody neutralization for many viruses, including high pathogenicity H5 and H7 influenza A strains. However, adapting this system to other influenza subtypes has been hampered by variations in the protease cleavage site of hemagglutinin (HA) that make it less(More)
A method allowing initial sequencing yields of 60-85% to be consistently obtained from samples prepared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretic transfer is described in detail. Conducting electrophoresis at a pH near neutrality is the single most important of the modifications made to earlier procedures, but(More)
Hormone-sensitive lipase activity (HSL), which is found in the supernatant of centrifuged homogenates of lipolytically quiet isolated rat adipocytes, was greatly reduced in or absent from the supernatant of lipolytically stimulated cells. The lipase was purified 100- to 250-fold from the supernatant of lipolytically quiet cells to 10-20% purity by a single(More)