We have identified a novel growth factor in Xenopus, which is most closely related to human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-3. Its expression peaks during gastrulation, most prominently in the Spemann organizer, and persists in the posterior neural floor plate and prechordal plate during neurulation. Injection of the corresponding mRNA into dorsal blastomeres… (More)
We isolated a Xenopus homolog of Frzb, a newly described protein containing an amino-terminal Frizzled motif. It dorsalized Xenopus embryos and was expressed in the Spemann organizer during early gastrulation. Unlike Frizzled proteins, endogenous Frzb was soluble. Frzb was secretable and could act across cell boundaries. In several functional assays, Frzb… (More)
BACKGROUND Subtilisin-like Proprotein Convertase 7 (SPC7) is a member of the subtilisin/kexin family of pro-protein convertases. It cleaves many pro-proteins to release their active proteins, including members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of signaling molecules. Other SPCs are known to be required during embryonic development but… (More)
CDMP1/GDF5 has not demonstrated biological activity in Xenopus embryos when overexpressed by mRNA injection. We provide biological and biochemical evidence that to become active, the protein requires cleavage by two distinct proteolytic enzymes. We demonstrate a specific overlap in the expression patterns of CDMP1/GDF5 with the proteases required to release… (More)
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration applies regulatory flexibility to balance benefits and risks to subjects in cell-therapy clinical trials.
The matricellular protein SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) is conserved phylogenetically from vertebrates to arthropods. We showed previously that SMOC inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling downstream of its receptor via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In contrast, the most prominent effect of… (More)
In an attempt to identify the cell-associated protein(s) through which SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) induces mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) became a candidate. However, although in 32D/EGFR cells, the EGFR was phosphorylated in the presence of a commercially available human… (More)