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In a two-level computer storage hierarchy, miss ratio measurements are often made from a “cold start”, that is, made with the first-level store initially empty. For large capacities the effect on the measured miss ratio of the misses incurred while filling the first-level store can be significant, even for long reference strings. Use of(More)
A particularly simple Markov chain model for a reference string is described. The model, which is only slightly more complicated than the independent reference model, generates strings that have a locality property and that have a specified probability distribution of references over pages. Expressions are obtained for expected working-set size and expected(More)
The observation that references to a particular page are clustered (in time) in typical database reference strings is used as the intuitive motivation for a model of page reference activity in an interactive database system. The model leads to a two-parameter form for the (Denning) working-set functions associated with a page. Methods for estimating(More)