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In a two-level computer storage hierarchy, miss ratio measurements are often made from a “cold start”, that is, made with the first-level store initially empty. For large capacities the effect on the measured miss ratio of the misses incurred while filling the first-level store can be significant, even for long reference strings. Use of… (More)

The observation that references to a particular page are clustered (in time) in typical database reference strings is used as the intuitive motivation for a model of page reference activity in an interactive database system. The model leads to a two-parameter form for the (Denning) working-set functions associated with a page. Methods for estimating… (More)

A particularly simple Markov chain model for a reference string is described. The model, which is only slightly more complicated than the independent reference model, generates strings that have a locality property and that have a specified probability distribution of references over pages. Expressions are obtained for expected working-set size and expected… (More)

Transient-free average working-set size and transient-free missing-page rate for a finite sample of a reference string are defined. Use of these statistics is appropriate if the contents of the working set at the start of the recorded string are unknown. If a certain stationarity condition holds, these statistics provide unbiased estimates of expected… (More)

A theoretical justification is given to the empirical observation that in some computing systems with a paged, 2-level storage hierarchy, long-term miss ratio is roughly independent of page size. Let <italic>MISS</italic> be the expected working-set miss ratio in the independent reference model, with expected working set size <italic>CAP</italic> pages. Now… (More)