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Asteroid 21 Lutetia was approached by the Rosetta spacecraft on 10 July 2010. The additional Doppler shift of the spacecraft radio signals imposed by 21 Lutetia's gravitational perturbation on the flyby trajectory were used to determine the mass of the asteroid. Calibrating and correcting for all Doppler contributions not associated with Lutetia, a(More)
Jupiter's nonthermal microwave emission, as measured by a global network of 11 radio telescopes, increased dramatically during the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts. The increase was wavelength-dependent, varying from approximately 10 percent at 70 to 90 centimeters to approximately 45 percent at 6 and 36 centimeters. The radio spectrum hardened (flattened toward(More)
One of Titan's most intriguing attributes is its copious but featureless atmosphere. The Voyager 1 fly-by and occultation in 1980 provided the first radial survey of Titan's atmospheric pressure and temperature and evidence for the presence of strong zonal winds. It was realized that the motion of an atmospheric probe could be used to study the winds, which(More)
Cometary nuclei consist mostly of dust and water ice. Previous observations have found nuclei to be low-density and highly porous bodies, but have only moderately constrained the range of allowed densities because of the measurement uncertainties. Here we report the precise mass, bulk density, porosity and internal structure of the nucleus of comet(More)
The atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus have been studied in the past by spacecraft with remote sensing or in situ techniques. These early missions, however, have left us with questions about, for example, the atmospheric structure in the transition region from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere (50-90 km) and the remarkably variable structure of(More)
We review the results from Mariner 10 regarding Mercury's gravity field and the results from radar ranging regarding topography. We discuss the implications of improving these results, including a determination of the polar component, as well as the opportunity to perform relativistic gravity tests with a future Mercury Orbiter. With a spacecraft placed in(More)
Dual-frequency ranging measurements were recorded for a three-week interval during the 1995 solar conjunction of the Ulysses spacecraft. The unusual occultation geometry resulting from the high inclination Ulysses orbit enabled coronal radio sounding from the solar South Pole to the helio-graphic equator at solar ray path offsets near 0.1 AU. The electron(More)
Radio observations in the ammonia inversion lines of four comets, C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), 153P/Ikeya-Zhang, C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), were performed at the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope during their respective close approaches to Earth. None of the four lowest energy metastable lines (J, K = J), J = 1–4, could be detected in these comets. We(More)