Malcolm Banks

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Hepatitis E is endemic in many developing countries where it causes substantial morbidity. In industrialised countries, it is considered rare, and largely confined to travellers returning from endemic areas. However, there is now a growing body of evidence that challenges this notion. Autochthonous hepatitis E in developed countries is far more common than(More)
Between 1996 and 2003, 186 cases of hepatitis E were serologically diagnosed. Of these, 17 (9%) were not associated with recent travel abroad. Patients were >55 years old (range, 56-82 years old) and tended to be male (76%). Two patients presented with fulminant hepatitis. A total of 129 (69%) cases were associated with recent travel to countries where(More)
AIMS To report the natural history of autochthonous hepatitis E and hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in Southwest England. METHODS Patients with unexplained hepatitis were tested for hepatitis E and cases followed until recovery or death. Five hundred blood donors, 336 individuals over the age of 60 years and 126 patients with chronic liver(More)
Although autochthonous hepatitis E has been reported in developed countries, its extent and nature in the United Kingdom are unclear. The aim of the present study was to report the natural history, lifestyle risk factors and molecular epidemiology of autochthonous hepatitis E infection in southwest England. Three hundred and thirty-three patients with(More)
Five faecal samples were collected from four different stages of production at each of 10 pig farms in the Yorkshire Humberside area of the UK, and samples of slurry were collected from nine of the farms. All the samples were tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA by a nested reverse transcriptase PCR. At least one sample from the pigs on each of the farms(More)
Samples of serum, tissue and faeces from two pig herds in England were examined for hepatitis E virus by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and a virus strain from each herd was partially sequenced. Eleven of 42 faecal samples and 16 of 21 tissue samples from two pigs were positive for the virus by RT-PCR. Analysis of two unique but closely related(More)
Sets of serum and milk samples were collected from various countries and prepared, lyophilised and distributed by 1 laboratory to 12 reference laboratories in Europe. The serum sets contained the three European bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) reference serum samples (EU1, EU2 and EU3), serum samples from naturally and experimentally BHV1-infected cattle, from(More)
Hepatitis E is an acute, viral hepatitis epidemic in developing regions, but which is detected with increasing frequency in sporadic form in developed regions. Pigs and possibly some other mammals are considered reservoirs of zoonotic infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV). However, whilst the relative significance of potential transmission routes from pigs(More)
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is an undesired pathogen in pigs intended for use as organ donors in xenotransplantation. In the present work, we characterized the first set of genes of PCMV. From a German isolate, the DNA polymerase (DPOL) locus was amplified and two complete open reading frames (ORF) as well as two partial ORFs including the complete DPOL(More)