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BACKGROUND A rapid scaling up of HIV interventions in India is anticipated, but systematic information on how costs of HIV interventions change over time and programme scale is not available to inform planning. METHODS We studied the changes in unit costs of two major interventions, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and sex worker programmes in the(More)
Cellulases find increasing prominence in sustainable production of fuel and feedstock from lignocellulosic biomass. The purification and biochemical characterization of individual components of cellulase complex is important to understand the mechanism of their action for the solubilization of crystalline cellulose. In this study, an extra-cellular(More)
The last decade has witnessed an effervescence of research interest in the development of potent inhibitors of various aspartic peptidases. As an enzyme family, aspartic peptidases are relatively a small group that has received enormous interest because of their significant roles in human diseases like involvement of renin in hypertension, cathepsin D in(More)
An effective alkali pretreatment which affects the structural properties of cellulose (corn cob) has been studied. The pretreatment of corn cob was carried out with different combinations of alkali at varying temperatures. The most effective pretreatment of corn cob was achieved with 1 % alkali at 50 °C in 4 h. The crystallinity index (CrI) and specific(More)
BACKGROUND Female sex workers and their clients play a prominent role in the HIV epidemic in India. Systematic data on the outputs, cost and efficiency for HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers in India are not readily available to understand programme functioning and guide efficient use of resources. METHODS Detailed output and cost data for(More)
Penicillium funiculosum NCL1, a filamentous fungus, produced significantly higher levels of β-glucosidase. The effect of initial pH, incubation temperature, and different carbon sources on extracellular β-glucosidase production was studied in submerged fermentation. At 30 °C with initial pH 5.0, enzyme production was increased by 48-fold upon induction with(More)
BACKGROUND Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) is an important part of the effort to control HIV. PMTCT services are mostly provided at public sector government hospitals in India. Systematic data on the cost and efficiency of providing PMTCT services in India are not available readily for further planning. METHODS Cost and output data were(More)
leges, and medical publishers. This has the dual benefit of providing additional training opportunities in primary care for NHS trainees. Professional recognition and status—There is an opportunity for the UK medical and nursing councils and the royal colleges to support their Indian counterparts in facilitating increased recognition and professional status(More)
A thermotolerant yeast capable of fermenting xylose to xylitol at 40°C was isolated and identified as a strain of Debaryomyces hansenii by ITS sequencing. This paper reports the production of xylitol from D-xylose and sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose by free and Ca-alginate immobilized cells of D. hansenii. The efficiency of free and immobilized cells were(More)
The controlled assembly of nanoparticles in thin film form on solid supports, both as monolayers and as superlattice structures, is a problem of considerable topical interest. Among the many interactions used to program the assembly of nanoparticles, electrostatic forces are particularly interesting for many reasons. This Account deals with assembling(More)