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HTLV-1 Tax deregulates signal transduction pathways, transcription of genes, and cell cycle regulation of host cells, which is mainly mediated by its protein-protein interactions with host cellular factors. We previously reported an interaction of Tax with a histone methyltransferase (HMTase), SUV39H1. As the interaction was mediated by the SUV39H1 SET(More)
Constitutive NF-κB activation has causative roles in adult T cell leukemia (ATL) caused by HTLV-1 and other cancers. Here, we report a pathway involving Polycomb-mediated miRNA silencing and NF-κB activation. We determine the miRNA signatures and reveal miR-31 loss in primary ATL cells. MiR-31 negatively regulates the noncanonical NF-κB pathway by targeting(More)
We have previously reported induction of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of HIV-1 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expressed in MOLT-4 cells. The shRNA (termed shPromA) targets the highly conserved tandem NF-kB binding sequences of the HIV-1 promoter. Recent articles have reported that TGS mediated by promoter-targeted siRNAs was exclusively the result of(More)
Despite prolonged antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 persists as transcriptionally inactive proviruses. The HIV-1 latency remains a principal obstacle in curing AIDS. It is important to understand mechanisms by which HIV-1 latency is established to make the latent reservoir smaller. We present a molecular characterization of distinct populations at an early(More)
Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is useful for measuring the amount of integrated HTLV-1 proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Many laboratories in Japan have developed different HTLV-1 qPCR methods. However, when six independent laboratories analyzed the proviral load of the same samples, there was a 5-fold(More)
Molecular abnormalities involved in the multistep leukemogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) remain to be clarified. Based on our integrated database, we focused on the expression patterns and levels of Ikaros family genes, Ikaros, Helios, and Aiolos, in ATL patients and HTLV-1 carriers. The results revealed profound deregulation of Helios expression, a(More)
We previously reported prolonged HIV-1 transcriptional gene silencing by an RNA duplex targeting a sequence located within the NF-kappaB binding motif of the HIV-1 promoter in a susceptible HeLa cell line. Here we report extremely prolonged suppression of productive HIV-1 infection in a T-cell line (Molt-4) by a retrovirally delivered short-hairpin RNA(More)
Recent evidence proposes a novel concept that mammalian natural antisense RNAs play important roles in cellular homeostasis by regulating the expression of several genes. Identification and characterization of retroviral antisense RNA would provide new insights into mechanisms of replication and pathogenesis. HIV-1 encoded-antisense RNAs have been reported,(More)
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is an essential and conserved cellular mRNA quality control mechanism. RNA signals to express viral genes from overlapping open reading frames potentially initiate NMD, nevertheless it is not clear whether viral RNAs are sensitive to NMD or if viruses have evolved mechanisms to evade NMD. Here we demonstrate that the(More)