Makoto Shiraki

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Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common manifestation in cirrhotic patients with reported incidences as high as 65-90%. PEM affects largely the patients' quality of life and survival. Thus, diagnosis of and intervention for PEM is important in the clinical management of liver cirrhosis. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is(More)
High levels of estrogen during pregnancy have been hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer in offspring. Some studies have reported a positive association of estrogen level during pregnancy with fetal size, which has been linked to the subsequent risk of breast cancer in offspring. We examined whether maternal diet, including fat and alcohol(More)
Birth weight has been associated with a subsequent risk of breast cancer. The present study examined associations between birth weight and pregnancy estrogens and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The concentrations of estradiol, estriol, and AFP were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples from 194 women during pregnancy and at birth. Birth weight was(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) promotes oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). BCAA catabolism is regulated by branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, which is regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of the E1alpha subunit at Ser293. BCKDH kinase is responsible for inactivation of the complex by phosphorylation.(More)
Obesity and related metabolic abnormalities, including adipocytokine dysbalance, are risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Visfatin, an adipocytokine that is highly expressed in visceral fat, is suggested to play a role in the progression of human malignancies. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) reduce the incidence of HCC in obese patients with(More)
Hepatic encephalopathy is one of the most important clinical manifestations in decompensated liver cirrhosis. Accepted concepts regarding the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy are that the endogenous neurotoxic substances, including ammonia: (i) escape from catabolism by the liver due both to the impaired function of the cirrhotic liver and also to(More)
PURPOSE Obesity and related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance and activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) axis, are risk factors for colon cancer. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) reduces the risk of liver cancer in cirrhotic patients who are obese, and this has been associated(More)
Obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, including adipokine imbalance and chronic inflammation, are involved in liver carcinogenesis. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, plays a critical role in adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and inflammation. We evaluated the impact of serum chemerin levels on liver functional reserves in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)(More)
AIM Sarcopenia impairs the outcome of patients with liver cirrhosis independently of liver function reserves. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the rate of skeletal muscle wasting predicts mortality in cirrhotic patients. METHODS This retrospective study evaluated 149 cirrhotic patients who visited our hospital between March 2004 and(More)
AIM Protein-energy malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). Non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ) measured by indirect calorimetry is a good marker to estimate energy malnutrition, and predicts the prognosis of patients with LC. However, measurement of npRQ is limited because of the high cost of indirect calorimetry. Our(More)