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We carried out an investigation to identify neuromelanin-containing noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons in the locus ceruleus and substantia nigra pars compacta of healthy volunteers and patients with Parkinson's disease using a newly developed magnetic resonance imaging technique that can demonstrate neuromelanin-related contrast. The high-resolution(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A reduction in the area of the substantia nigra (SN) has been shown in patients with Parkinson disease. The substantia nigra is anteroinferolateral to the red nucleus, and it is important to precisely locate its true anatomic location to accurately measure SN area. Our purpose was to determine the exact location of the substantia(More)
PURPOSE To investigate age-related changes in the locus ceruleus (LC) in healthy subjects using neuromelanin magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3 Tesla. METHODS We examined 64 healthy volunteers (aged 23 to 80 years) using neuromelanin-sensitive T1-weighted images and measured the contrast of areas of high signal intensity corresponding to the LC. (More)
Recent studies have demonstrated the involvements of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter systems in the schizophrenic brain. In order to further elucidate the alterations of this system in schizophrenia, we employed immunohistochemical techniques and examined the expression and anatomical distribution of the GABA(B) receptor in the hippocampus(More)
Kainate receptors show a particular affinity for a variety of natural source compounds, including dysiherbaine (DH), a potent agonist derived from the marine sponge Dysidea herbacea. In this study, we characterized the pharmacological activity and structural basis for subunit selectivity of neodysiherbaine (neoDH) and MSVIII-19, which are natural and(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the difference in enhancement effects and relaxivities of the gadolinium chelate at 1.5 and 3 Tesla (T) and to elucidate the contribution of the high magnetic field to contrast enhancement in spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GRE) images. METHODS Phantoms containing water with or without gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) at(More)
We looked at abnormalities in the circuit of Papez in patients with the mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). We reviewed the MRI studies of 15 patients with probable MTS, seeking changes in the fornix, mamillary body, mamillothalamic tract, thalamus and cingulate and parahippocampal gyri. We correlated any abnormalities with each other and with clinical(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the performance and efficacy for intensity inhomogeneity correction of various sequences of the human brain in 7T MRI using the extended version of the unified segmentation algorithm. MATERIALS Ten healthy volunteers were scanned with four different sequences (2D spin echo [SE], 3D fast SE, 2D fast spoiled gradient echo, and 3D(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Despite improvements in endoscopic hemostasis and pharmacological therapies, upper gastrointestinal (UGI) ulcers repeatedly bleed in 10% to 20% of patients, and those without early endoscopic reintervention or definitive surgery might be at a high risk for mortality. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for intractability to initial(More)