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FXYD3, also known as Mat-8 (Mammary tumor 8 kDa), is one of mRNAs highly expressed in mouse and human breast cancers. Here, we newly found that FXYD3 protein was also overexpressed in human breast cancer specimens; invasive ductal carcinomas and intra-ductal carcinomas, whereas its expression was low in benign lesion specimens; mastopathy, fibroadenoma and(More)
We describe methods to search with a query by example in a known domain for information in an unknown domain by exploiting Web search engines. Relational search is an effective way to obtain information in an unknown field for users. For example, if an <i>Apple</i> user searches for <i>Microsoft</i> products, similar <i>Apple</i> products are important(More)
BACKGROUND Although DNA sequence analysis is becoming a powerful tool for identifying species, it is not easy to assess whether the observed genetic disparity corresponds to reproductive isolation. Here, we compared the efficiency of biological species identification between nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequences, focusing on an Asian endemic(More)
It remains unknown why we generate spontaneous eyeblinks every few seconds, more often than necessary for ocular lubrication. Because eyeblinks tend to occur at implicit breakpoints while viewing videos, we hypothesized that eyeblinks are actively involved in the release of attention. We show that while viewing videos, cortical activity momentarily(More)
Interspecific hybridization is one of the major factors leading to phylogenetic incongruence among loci, but the knowledge is still limited about the potential of each locus to introgress between species. By directly sequencing three DNA regions: chloroplast DNAs (matK gene and trnL-F noncoding region), the nuclear ribosomal external transcribed spacer(More)
To test whether gaps resulting from sequence alignment contain phylogenetic signal concordant with those of base substitutions, we analyzed the occurrence of indel mutations upon a well-resolved, substitution-based tree for three nuclear genes in bumble bees (Bombus, Apidae: Bombini). The regions analyzed were exon and intron sequences of long-wavelength(More)
About half a dozen obligate pollination mutualisms between plants and their seed-consuming pollinators are currently recognized, including fig-fig wasp, yucca-yucca moth, and the recently discovered Glochidion tree-Epicephala moth mutualisms. A common principle among these interactions is that the pollinators consume only a limited amount of the seed crop(More)
Trees of the genus Glochidion (Phyllanthaceae) are pollinated by females of Epicephala moths (Gracillariidae) whose larvae consume the seeds of the flowers that they pollinate. Each Epicephala moth species is specific locally to a single host species, although two to four Glochidion hosts often cooccur. To investigate the role of olfactory signals in(More)
The flora of New Caledonia is characterized by remarkably high species diversity, high endemicity, and an unusual abundance of archaic plant taxa. To investigate community-level pollination mutualism in this endemic ecosystem, we observed flower visitors on 99 plant species in 42 families of various types of vegetation. Among the 95 native plant species,(More)