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We study, theoretically and quantitatively, the equilibrium of an economy with unsecured consumer credit with the following features. Credit-suppliers take deposits at a given interest rate and offer loans to households via a menu of credit levels and associated interest rates. The loan industry is competitive, with free entry and zero costs, and borrowers(More)
The type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptor is well characterized but the type 2 (AT2) receptor remains an enigma. We tested the hypothesis that the AT2 receptor can modulate the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells by transfecting an AT2 receptor expression vector into the balloon-injured rat carotid artery and observed that overexpression of the AT2(More)
Formation of four oxidative metabolites from the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin (DPH) catalyzed by human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes was determined simultaneously. Under the conditions in which linearity for formation of 4'-hydroxylated DPH (4'-HPPH; main metabolite) was observed, human liver cytosol increased microsome-mediated DPH(More)
In cultivated rice two wild-type alleles, Wxa and Wxb, predominate at the waxy locus, which encodes granule-bound starch synthase. The activity of Wxa is 10-fold higher than that of Wxb at the level of both protein and mRNA. Wxb has a +1G to T mutation at the 5' splice site of the first intron. Sequence analysis of Wxb transcripts revealed that splicing(More)
CD44 is a cell surface receptor for hyaluronate, a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although CD44 has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we find that CD44 expressed in cancer cells is cleaved at the membrane-proximal region of the ectodomain and the membrane-bound cleavage(More)
KamLAND has measured the flux of nu;(e)'s from distant nuclear reactors. We find fewer nu;(e) events than expected from standard assumptions about nu;(e) propagation at the 99.95% C.L. In a 162 ton.yr exposure the ratio of the observed inverse beta-decay events to the expected number without nu;(e) disappearance is 0.611+/-0.085(stat)+/-0.041(syst) for(More)
A method of analysis of a local fitness landscape for a current biopolymer is presented. Based on the assumption of additivity of mutational effects in the biopolymer, we assigned a site-fitness to each residue at each site. The assigned values of site-fitnesses were obtained by the least-squares method to minimize discrepancies between experimental(More)
Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in amiodarone N-deethylation were identified, and the relative contributions of these CYP isoforms were evaluated in different human liver microsomes. The mean K(M) and V(max) values of amiodarone N-deethylation in microsomes from six human livers were 31.6 +/- 7.5 microM and 1.2 +/- 0.7 pmol/min/pmol of CYP,(More)
Nicotine is primarily metabolized to cotinine in humans. In this study, human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform involved in cotinine formation was identified. The formation of cotinine in 16 human liver microsomes was determined with a 50 microM nicotine concentration and with a cytosol preparation as a source of aldehyde oxidase. Cotinine formation in human(More)
Nicotine is primarily metabolized to cotinine, and cotinine is further metabolized to trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in human liver, which is a major metabolite of nicotine in humans. We studied the formation of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine from cotinine in human liver microsomes. trans-3'-Hydroxycotinine formation demonstrated single enzyme Michaelis-Menten kinetics(More)