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Many studies have shown that apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays important roles in maintaining intracellular lipid homeostasis in nonneuronal cells. However, little is known about the extracellular transport of lipids in the CNS. In this study, we determined whether and to what degree lipid efflux from astrocytes and neurons depended on apoE. Our results showed(More)
A fundamental question about the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) concerns how toxic aggregates of amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are formed from its nontoxic soluble form. We hypothesized previously that GM1 ganglioside-bound Abeta (GAbeta) is involved in the process. We now examined this possibility using a novel monoclonal antibody raised(More)
Interactions between amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) and lipids have been suggested to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these interactions has not been fully understood. We examined the effect of Abeta on lipid metabolism in cultured neurons and astrocytes and found that oligomeric(More)
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is characterized by an accumulation of cholesterol in most tissues and progressive neurodegeneration with the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Neurofibrillary tangles are composed of paired helical filaments (PHF), a major component of which is the hyperphosphorylated tau. In this study we used NPC heterozygous and NPC(More)
Previously, we found that amyloid beta-protein (Abeta)1-42 exhibits neurotoxicity, while Abeta1-40 serves as an antioxidant molecule by quenching metal ions and inhibiting metal-mediated oxygen radical generation. Here, we show another neuroprotective action of nonamyloidogenic Abeta1-40 against Abeta1-42-induced neurotoxicity in culture and in vivo.(More)
Midkine (MK) is a new member of the heparin-binding neurotrophic factor family. MK plays important roles in development and carcinogenesis and has several important biological effects, including promotion of neurite extension and neuronal survival. However, the mechanism by which MK exerts its neurotrophic actions on neurons has not been elucidated to date.(More)
Midkine (MK) is the product of a retinoic acid responsive gene and is a member of a new family of heparin-binding growth factors. Neurotrophic effects of MK were examined using cultured spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons derived from fetal mouse. MK, which was added to the culture medium at concentrations of 1-100 ng/ml, promoted survival of(More)
BACKGROUND Several lines of evidence indicate that memory loss represents a synaptic failure caused by soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers. However, the pathological relevance of Aβ oligomers (AβOs) as the trigger of synaptic or neuronal degeneration, and the possible mechanism underlying the neurotoxic action of endogenous AβOs remain to be determined. (More)
Aggregated and oligomeric amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) is known to exhibit neurotoxicity. However, the action of Abeta monomers on neurons is not fully understood. We have studied aggregation state-dependent actions of Abeta and found an oligomer-specific effect of Abeta on lipid metabolism in neurons (Michikawa et al., 2001). Here, we show a novel function(More)
Deficiency of nonsterol isoprenoids, intermediate metabolites of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, has been known to cause an inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell growth, and to induce apoptosis in nonneuronal cells. To investigate whether this is also the case in neurons, we examined the effect of a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)(More)