Makoto Michikawa

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Midkine (MK) is a new member of the heparin-binding neurotrophic factor family. MK plays important roles in development and carcinogenesis and has several important biological effects, including promotion of neurite extension and neuronal survival. However, the mechanism by which MK exerts its neurotrophic actions on neurons has not been elucidated to date.(More)
Many studies have shown that apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays important roles in maintaining intracellular lipid homeostasis in nonneuronal cells. However, little is known about the extracellular transport of lipids in the CNS. In this study, we determined whether and to what degree lipid efflux from astrocytes and neurons depended on apoE. Our results showed(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major apolipoprotein in the brain. The ε4 allele of apoE is a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease, and apoE deficiency in mice leads to blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage. However, the effect of apoE isoforms on BBB properties are as yet unknown. Here, using an in vitro BBB model consisting of brain endothelial cells and(More)
We identified a novel gene, which encodes a 265-amino-acid sequence with a thrombospondin (TSP) type 1 motif. Unlike the other secretory proteins of the TSP family, this gene encodes no apparent secretion cleavage site, but has a putative nuclear localization signal. Northern blot analysis showed transient expression in the central nervous system (CNS)(More)
A fundamental question about the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) concerns how toxic aggregates of amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are formed from its nontoxic soluble form. We hypothesized previously that GM1 ganglioside-bound Abeta (GAbeta) is involved in the process. We now examined this possibility using a novel monoclonal antibody raised(More)
One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the abnormal state of tau. It is both highly phosphorylated and aggregated into paired helical filaments (PHFs) in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). However, the mechanism underlying the hyperphosphorylation of tau in NFTs and neuronal degeneration in AD remains to be elucidated. The fact that(More)
Amyloid beta-protein 1-42 (Abeta42) is believed to play a causative role in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD), although it is a minor part of Abeta. In contrast, Abeta40 is the predominant secreted form of Abeta and recent studies have suggested that Abeta40 has neuroprotective effects and inhibits amyloid deposition. We have reported that(More)
Soluble oligomeric amyloid beta (oAbeta) 1-42 causes synaptic dysfunction and neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although accumulation of microglia around senile plaques is a hallmark of AD pathology, the role of microglia in oAbeta1-42 neurotoxicity is not fully understood. Here, we showed that oAbeta but not fibrillar Abeta was neurotoxic, and(More)
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is characterized by an accumulation of cholesterol in most tissues and progressive neurodegeneration with the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Neurofibrillary tangles are composed of paired helical filaments (PHF), a major component of which is the hyperphosphorylated tau. In this study we used NPC heterozygous and NPC(More)
Deficiency of nonsterol isoprenoids, intermediate metabolites of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, has been known to cause an inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell growth, and to induce apoptosis in nonneuronal cells. To investigate whether this is also the case in neurons, we examined the effect of a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)(More)