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Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the(More)
The 5-HT3 receptor, the only ionotropic 5-HT receptor, is expressed in limbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. However, it is not known whether it has a role in fear memory processes. Analysis of 5-HT3A receptor knockout mice in fear conditioning paradigms revealed that the 5-HT3A receptor is not required for the acquisition or(More)
Environmental enrichment causes a variety of effects on brain structure and function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in enrichment-induced neuronal changes; however, the precise mechanism underlying these effects remains uncertain. In this study, a specific upregulation of kinesin superfamily motor protein 1A (KIF1A) was(More)
This article explores direct touch and manipulation techniques for surface computing environments using a specialized haptic force feedback stylus, called ImpAct, which can dynamically change its effective length and equipped with sensors to calculate its orientation in world coordinates. When a user pushes it against a touch screen, the physical stylus(More)
This paper explores direct touch and manipulation techniques for surface computing platforms using a special force feedback stylus named ImpAct(Immersive Haptic Augmentation for Direct Touch). Proposed haptic stylus can change its length when it is pushed against a display surface. Correspondingly, a virtual stem is rendered inside the display area so that(More)
Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS) and black tea by-product silage (BTS) were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected(More)
We propose an analysis of retweets and their propagation through Twitter. A retweet allows Twitter users to rebroad-cast specific tweets of interest by incorporating all or part of the original tweet into their own. We hypothesize that retweets play a role in introducing new connections to a network , so that individuals who do not follow an individual may(More)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a signaling molecule that regulates cellular processes. Based on previous studies of bladder function over the past decade, bladder ATP signaling was thought to have an essential role in the normal micturition reflex. In this study, we performed detailed analyses of bladder function in purinergic receptor-deficient mice using(More)