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The 5-HT3 receptor, the only ionotropic 5-HT receptor, is expressed in limbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. However, it is not known whether it has a role in fear memory processes. Analysis of 5-HT3A receptor knockout mice in fear conditioning paradigms revealed that the 5-HT3A receptor is not required for the acquisition or(More)
Environmental enrichment causes a variety of effects on brain structure and function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in enrichment-induced neuronal changes; however, the precise mechanism underlying these effects remains uncertain. In this study, a specific upregulation of kinesin superfamily motor protein 1A (KIF1A) was(More)
The 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) type 3 (5-HT3) receptor belongs to the superfamily of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, and can be either homopentameric (5-HT3A) or heteropentameric (5-HT3AB) receptor. Several modulators are known, which either inhibit or potentiate this channel, but few have any appreciable selectivity between the two subtypes(More)
This article explores direct touch and manipulation techniques for surface computing environments using a specialized haptic force feedback stylus, called ImpAct, which can dynamically change its effective length and equipped with sensors to calculate its orientation in world coordinates. When a user pushes it against a touch screen, the physical stylus(More)
This paper explores direct touch and manipulation techniques for surface computing platforms using a special force feedback stylus named ImpAct(Immersive Haptic Augmentation for Direct Touch). Proposed haptic stylus can change its length when it is pushed against a display surface. Correspondingly, a virtual stem is rendered inside the display area so that(More)
The 5-hydroxytryptamine type-3 (5-HT3) receptor is the only ligand-gated ion channel in the 5-HT receptor subfamilies. Although it is known that the 5-HT3 receptor is expressed in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex, it is not well studied whether it has roles in fear memory processes. We performed behavioral analyses of 5-HT3A receptor knockout(More)
Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS) and black tea by-product silage (BTS) were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected(More)
Comparative analyses of methanogen diversity in the rumen of crossbred buffalo and cattle fed the same diet in the Philippines was performed by cloning the methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) gene. The cattle and buffalo libraries consisted of 50 clones each. Comparative analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed that these 2 libraries differed(More)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a signaling molecule that regulates cellular processes. Based on previous studies of bladder function over the past decade, bladder ATP signaling was thought to have an essential role in the normal micturition reflex. In this study, we performed detailed analyses of bladder function in purinergic receptor-deficient mice using(More)