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In Drosophila, maternally supplied Nanos functions in the migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) into the gonad; in mice, zygotic genes are involved instead. We report the cloning and the functional analyses of nanos2 and nanos3 in mice. These genes are differentially expressed in mouse PGCs. nanos2 is predominantly expressed in male germ cells, and the(More)
H5N1 influenza A viruses have spread to numerous countries in Asia, Europe and Africa, infecting not only large numbers of poultry, but also an increasing number of humans, often with lethal effects. Human and avian influenza A viruses differ in their recognition of host cell receptors: the former preferentially recognize receptors with saccharides(More)
Mutations in the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 viruses have been detected sporadically. An Asp222Gly (D222G) substitution has been associated with severe or fatal disease. Here we show that 222G variants infected a higher proportion of ciliated cells in cultures of human airway epithelium than did viruses with(More)
The carbohydrate antigen, sialyl Lex, is known to be a ligand for the cell adhesion molecule called ELAM-1 (E-selectin, endothelial cell leukocyte adhesion molecule-1), which is present on cytokine-activated human endothelial cells. Recently, we reported that another carbohydrate antigen, sialyl Lea, can also serve as a ligand for ELAM-1 (A. Takada, K.(More)
The distribution of sialic acid (SA) species varies among animal species, but the biological role of this variation is largely unknown. Influenza viruses differ in their ability to recognize SA-galactose (Gal) linkages, depending on the animal hosts from which they are isolated. For example, human viruses preferentially recognize SA linked to Gal by the(More)
The binding specificities of amyloid beta-protein (A beta) such as A beta 1-40, A beta 1-42, A beta 40-1, A beta 1-38, A beta 25-35, and amyloid beta precursor protein (beta-APP) analogues for different glycosphingolipids were determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a liposome capture method. A beta 1-42, A beta 1-40, A beta 40-1, and A beta(More)
Cell death in the germ line is controlled by both positive and negative mechanisms that maintain the appropriate number of germ cells and that prevent the possible formation of germ cell tumors. In the mouse embryo, Steel/c-Kit signaling is required to prevent migrating primordial germ cells (PGCs) from undergoing Bax-dependent apoptosis. In our current(More)
The selectins (lectin-EGF-complement binding-cell adhesion molecules [LEC-CAMs]) are a family of mammalian receptors implicated in the initial interactions between leukocytes and vascular endothelia, leading to lymphocyte homing, platelet binding, and neutrophil extravasation. The three known selectins, L-selectin (leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 [LECAM-1]),(More)
The carbohydrate binding specificities of three sialoadhesins, a subgroup of I-type lectins (immunoglobulin superfamily lectins), were compared by measuring lectin-transfected COS cell adhesion to natural and synthetic gangliosides. The neural sialoadhesins, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and Schwann cell myelin protein (SMP), had similar and(More)