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Some fMRI studies in humans have located the frontal eye field (FEF) in two distinct regions along the precentral sulcus (PCS): one localized more medically, in the superior precentral sulcus (supPCR) at the junction with the superior frontal sulcus, and the other localized more laterally, along the medial part of the inferior precentral sulcus (infPCR).(More)
BACKGROUND Although DNA sequence analysis is becoming a powerful tool for identifying species, it is not easy to assess whether the observed genetic disparity corresponds to reproductive isolation. Here, we compared the efficiency of biological species identification between nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequences, focusing on an Asian endemic(More)
Eye blinking is not only a reflexive action to protect the ocular surface from injury and desiccation; it can also be done intentionally. However, only a few studies have investigated the brain mechanism controlling intentional blinking, and there are still inconsistencies among the reported activation patterns in the human brain evoked by intentional(More)
BACKGROUND The seacoasts of the Japanese Arc are fringed by many gravel beaches owing to active tectonic uplift and intense denudation caused by heavy rainfall. These gravel beaches are inhabited by gobies of the genus Luciogobius that burrow into the gravel sediment and live interstitially. Although their habitat and morphology (e. g., reduced fins,(More)
The parietal cortex in monkeys and humans has been shown to play an important role in the transformation of sensory information to motor commands. However, it is still unclear whether in humans, these areas are divided functionally into subregions based on different combinations of sensory and motor modalities. To identify subregions in the parietal cortex(More)
The evolutionary stability of mutualisms is enhanced when partners possess mechanisms to prevent overexploitation by one another. In obligate pollination-seed consumption mutualisms, selective abortion of flowers containing excessive eggs represents one such mechanism, but empirical tests have long been limited to the yucca-yucca moth mutualism. We present(More)
How speciation genes can spread in a population is poorly understood. In land snails, a single gene for left-right reversal could be responsible for instant speciation, because dextral and sinistral snails have difficulty in mating. However, the traditional two-locus speciation model predicts that a mating disadvantage for the reversal should counteract(More)
The sequence of neural activation during a visual search task was investigated using magnetoencephalography and the source locations for the activations were analyzed using a single-dipole algorithm. Five components (M1-5) were detected at mean latencies of 110, 146, 196, 250 and 333 ms in both of two different stimulus conditions; a target popped out in(More)
The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran(More)