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Some fMRI studies in humans have located the frontal eye field (FEF) in two distinct regions along the precentral sulcus (PCS): one localized more medically, in the superior precentral sulcus (supPCR) at the junction with the superior frontal sulcus, and the other localized more laterally, along the medial part of the inferior precentral sulcus (infPCR).(More)
It remains unknown why we generate spontaneous eyeblinks every few seconds, more often than necessary for ocular lubrication. Because eyeblinks tend to occur at implicit breakpoints while viewing videos, we hypothesized that eyeblinks are actively involved in the release of attention. We show that while viewing videos, cortical activity momentarily(More)
Eye blinking is not only a reflexive action to protect the ocular surface from injury and desiccation; it can also be done intentionally. However, only a few studies have investigated the brain mechanism controlling intentional blinking, and there are still inconsistencies among the reported activation patterns in the human brain evoked by intentional(More)
BACKGROUND Although DNA sequence analysis is becoming a powerful tool for identifying species, it is not easy to assess whether the observed genetic disparity corresponds to reproductive isolation. Here, we compared the efficiency of biological species identification between nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequences, focusing on an Asian endemic(More)
The parietal cortex in monkeys and humans has been shown to play an important role in the transformation of sensory information to motor commands. However, it is still unclear whether in humans, these areas are divided functionally into subregions based on different combinations of sensory and motor modalities. To identify subregions in the parietal cortex(More)
How speciation genes can spread in a population is poorly understood. In land snails, a single gene for left-right reversal could be responsible for instant speciation, because dextral and sinistral snails have difficulty in mating. However, the traditional two-locus speciation model predicts that a mating disadvantage for the reversal should counteract(More)
BACKGROUND The seacoasts of the Japanese Arc are fringed by many gravel beaches owing to active tectonic uplift and intense denudation caused by heavy rainfall. These gravel beaches are inhabited by gobies of the genus Luciogobius that burrow into the gravel sediment and live interstitially. Although their habitat and morphology (e. g., reduced fins,(More)
BACKGROUND Gastropod mollusks are one of the most successful animals that have diversified in the fully terrestrial habitat. They have evolved terrestrial taxa in more than nine lineages, most of which originated during the Paleozoic or Mesozoic. The rissooidean gastropod family Pomatiopsidae is one of the few groups that have evolved fully terrestrial taxa(More)