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BACKGROUND Although DNA sequence analysis is becoming a powerful tool for identifying species, it is not easy to assess whether the observed genetic disparity corresponds to reproductive isolation. Here, we compared the efficiency of biological species identification between nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequences, focusing on an Asian endemic(More)
BACKGROUND The seacoasts of the Japanese Arc are fringed by many gravel beaches owing to active tectonic uplift and intense denudation caused by heavy rainfall. These gravel beaches are inhabited by gobies of the genus Luciogobius that burrow into the gravel sediment and live interstitially. Although their habitat and morphology (e. g., reduced fins,(More)
We investigated the diets of stream detritivores in a coniferous plantation and a deciduous-coniferous mixed forest using stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) mixing models. In summer, collector-gatherers (Ephemera japonica, McLachlan, and Paralichas sp.) and a shredder (Lepidostoma crassicorne, Ulmer) utilized coniferous needle litter but not broad-leaved(More)
The evolutionary stability of mutualisms is enhanced when partners possess mechanisms to prevent overexploitation by one another. In obligate pollination-seed consumption mutualisms, selective abortion of flowers containing excessive eggs represents one such mechanism, but empirical tests have long been limited to the yucca-yucca moth mutualism. We present(More)
How speciation genes can spread in a population is poorly understood. In land snails, a single gene for left-right reversal could be responsible for instant speciation, because dextral and sinistral snails have difficulty in mating. However, the traditional two-locus speciation model predicts that a mating disadvantage for the reversal should counteract(More)
BACKGROUND Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in temperate forests on islands, where the land was not covered with ice sheets. We investigated the phylogeographical patterns of the weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Curculionidae), a generalist seed predator of Fagaceae(More)
The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone.(More)
—This paper introduces a new representation of hand motions for tracking and recognizing hand-finger gestures in an image sequence. A human hand has many joints, for example our hand model has 15, and its high dimensionality makes it difficult to model hand motions. To make things easier, it is important to represent a hand motion in a low dimensional(More)