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Reinforcement learning theory plays a key role in understanding the behavioral and neural mechanisms of choice behavior in animals and humans. Especially, intermediate variables of learning models estimated from behavioral data, such as the expectation of reward for each candidate choice (action value), have been used in searches for the neural correlates(More)
Frontal lobe dysfunction has been implicated as one of the pathophysiological bases of bipolar disorder. Detailed time courses of brain activation in the bipolar disorder group were investigated using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a recently developed functional neuroimaging technology with a high time resolution, and were compared with(More)
BACKGROUND Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled the noninvasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders with measurement of hemoglobin concentrations as cerebral blood volume. METHODS Ten patients with depression, 13 patients with schizophrenia, and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic amino acid neuropeptide localized in the lateral hypothalamus. Although MCH is thought to be an important regulator of feeding behavior, the involvement of this peptide in body weight control has been unclear. To examine the role of MCH in the development of obesity, we assessed the effect of chronic(More)
Accumulating evidence shows that the neural network of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia is critically involved in reinforcement learning. Recent studies found functional heterogeneity within the cortico-basal ganglia circuit, especially in its ventromedial to dorsolateral axis. Here we review computational issues in reinforcement learning and(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic orexigenic peptide expressed in the lateral hypothalamus, which plays an important role in regulating energy balance. To elucidate the physiological role of MCH in obesity development, the present study examined the effect of a selective MCH1 receptor (MCH1R) antagonist in the diet-induced obesity mouse model.(More)
QRFP, an RFamide peptide, was recently identified as an endogenous ligand of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR103. Recent investigation revealed that acute intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of QRFP26/P518/26RFa, a constitutive part of QRFP43 (43-amino acid-residue form of QRFP), increases appetite in mice, but its role in long-term energy(More)
The ascending projections to the lateral lemniscal nuclei and the inferior colliculus were investigated in the albino rat by using Fluoro-Gold, either alone or in combination with other retrograde tract tracers. Injections were made into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), the(More)
Thraustochytrids, unicellular eukaryotic marine protists, accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of two fatty acid elongase genes (designated tselo1 and tselo2), which could be involved in the desaturase/elongase (standard) pathway in Thraustochytrium sp. ATCC 26185. TsELO1, the product(More)
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), have been reported to play roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The major source of DHA is fish oils but a recent increase in the global demand of DHA and decrease in fish stocks require a substitute. Thraustochytrids, unicellular marine protists belonging to the(More)