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BACKGROUND Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled the noninvasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders with measurement of hemoglobin concentrations as cerebral blood volume. METHODS Ten patients with depression, 13 patients with schizophrenia, and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects(More)
Frontal lobe dysfunction has been implicated as one of the pathophysiological bases of bipolar disorder. Detailed time courses of brain activation in the bipolar disorder group were investigated using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a recently developed functional neuroimaging technology with a high time resolution, and were compared with(More)
Reinforcement learning theory plays a key role in understanding the behavioral and neural mechanisms of choice behavior in animals and humans. Especially, intermediate variables of learning models estimated from behavioral data, such as the expectation of reward for each candidate choice (action value), have been used in searches for the neural correlates(More)
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we were able to observe, in detail, ictal brain hemodynamics during epileptic seizure caused by a brain tumor. A 53-year-old man was experencing partial motor seizures of the left side of his face and neck. In a brain MR image a mass lesion was found in the subcortical area of the right frontal lobe. We(More)
Yoshimitsu Kakuta1,2, Nozomu Okino2, Hitomi Kajiwara3, Masako Ichikawa3, Yoshimitsu Takakura3, Makoto Ito2, and Takeshi Yamamoto1,3 2Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan; and 3Glycotechnology Business Unit, Japan(More)
AIMS Most of recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (AF) are due to reconnection of PVs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether elimination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced dormant PV conduction by additional energy applications during the first ablation procedure could reduce the(More)
QRFP, an RFamide peptide, was recently identified as an endogenous ligand of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR103. Recent investigation revealed that acute intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of QRFP26/P518/26RFa, a constitutive part of QRFP43 (43-amino acid-residue form of QRFP), increases appetite in mice, but its role in long-term energy(More)
Accumulating evidence shows that the neural network of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia is critically involved in reinforcement learning. Recent studies found functional heterogeneity within the cortico-basal ganglia circuit, especially in its ventromedial to dorsolateral axis. Here we review computational issues in reinforcement learning and(More)
Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus-associated malignant tumor. A consistent elevation in EBV antibody titers is a well-established risk factor for the development of NPC. The pathophysiological relationship and molecular mechanisms of EBV-mediated carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. While NPC tumors are known(More)
The ascending projections to the lateral lemniscal nuclei and the inferior colliculus were investigated in the albino rat by using Fluoro-Gold, either alone or in combination with other retrograde tract tracers. Injections were made into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), the(More)