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Frontal lobe dysfunction has been implicated as one of the pathophysiological bases of bipolar disorder. Detailed time courses of brain activation in the bipolar disorder group were investigated using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a recently developed functional neuroimaging technology with a high time resolution, and were compared with(More)
Reinforcement learning theory plays a key role in understanding the behavioral and neural mechanisms of choice behavior in animals and humans. Especially, intermediate variables of learning models estimated from behavioral data, such as the expectation of reward for each candidate choice (action value), have been used in searches for the neural correlates(More)
BACKGROUND Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled the noninvasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders with measurement of hemoglobin concentrations as cerebral blood volume. METHODS Ten patients with depression, 13 patients with schizophrenia, and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects(More)
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we were able to observe, in detail, ictal brain hemodynamics during epileptic seizure caused by a brain tumor. A 53-year-old man was experencing partial motor seizures of the left side of his face and neck. In a brain MR image a mass lesion was found in the subcortical area of the right frontal lobe. We(More)
Several lines of epidemiological evidence have suggested that non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is closely associated with obesity in humans. However, the precise mechanisms of the progression of NASH and its key metabolic abnormalities remain to be elucidated. We found that long-term high-fat diet (HFD) exposure induces NASH, with excess body weight,(More)
BACKGROUND Drugs with I(Kr)-blocking action cause secondary long-QT syndrome. Several cases have been associated with mutations of genes coding cardiac ion channels, but their frequency among patients affected by drug-induced long-QT syndrome (dLQTS) and the resultant molecular effects remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS Genetic testing was carried out(More)
To assess the contribution of potential central nervous system pathways implicated in the control of appetite regulation and energy metabolism, it is essential to first identify appropriate animal models. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a conserved cyclic neuropeptide implicated in the modulation of food intake, has been shown to bind and activate two(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic orexigenic peptide expressed in the lateral hypothalamus, which plays an important role in regulating energy balance. To elucidate the physiological role of MCH in obesity development, the present study examined the effect of a selective MCH1 receptor (MCH1R) antagonist in the diet-induced obesity mouse model.(More)
BACKGROUND There is interest in newborn screening and diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases because of the development of treatment options that improve clinical outcome. Assays of lysosomal enzymes with high analytical range (ratio of assay response from the enzymatic reaction divided by the assay response due to nonenzymatic processes) are desirable(More)
Over one hundred different phospholipid molecular species are known to be present in mammalian cells and tissues. Fatty acid remodeling systems for phospholipids including acyl-CoA:lysophospholipid acyltransferases, CoA-dependent and CoA-independent transacylation systems, are involved in the biosynthesis of these molecular species.(More)