Learn More
Narcolepsy with cataplexy, characterized by sleepiness and rapid onset into REM sleep, affects 1 in 2,000 individuals. Narcolepsy was first shown to be tightly associated with HLA-DR2 (ref. 3) and later sublocalized to DQB1*0602 (ref. 4). Following studies in dogs and mice, a 95% loss of hypocretin-producing cells in postmortem hypothalami from narcoleptic(More)
BACKGROUND The sleep disorder narcolepsy is caused by a vast reduction in neurons producing the hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptides. Based on the tight association with HLA, narcolepsy is believed to result from an autoimmune attack, but the cause of hypocretin cell loss is still unknown. We performed gene expression profiling in the hypothalamus to identify(More)
The continuous performance test (CPT) provides a reliable index of cognitive function, but it is still unclear what aspects of processing this test measures. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of different aspects of cognitive function to the performance on degraded stimulus CPT (DSCPT), which requires a higher level of mental effort than the(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine whether hypocretin receptor gene (hcrtR1 and hcrtR2) expression is affected after long-term hypocretin ligand loss in humans and animal models of narcolepsy. DESIGN Animal and human study. We measured hcrtR1 and hcrtR2 expression in the frontal cortex and pons using the RT-PCR method in murine models (8-week-old and(More)
The hypocretin (also known as orexin) neuropeptide system coordinates the regulation of various physiological processes. A reduction in Nr6a1 expression was observed in hypocretin neuron-ablated transgenic mice. To show that prepro-hypocretin transcription is functionally modulated by NR6A1, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis,(More)
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that narcolepsy with cataplexy is an autoimmune disease. We here report genome-wide association analyses for narcolepsy with replication and fine mapping across three ethnic groups (3,406 individuals of European ancestry, 2,414 Asians and 302 African Americans). We identify a SNP in the 3' untranslated region of(More)
Narcolepsy (hypocretin deficiency), a sleep disorder characterized by sleepiness, cataplexy and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep abnormalities, is tightly associated with HLA-DRB1*1501 (M17378) and HLA-DQB1*0602 (M20432). Susceptibility genes other than those in the HLA region are also likely involved. We conducted a genome-wide association study using 500K(More)
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and a pathological manifestation of rapid eye movement during sleep. Narcoleptic pathogenesis is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, development of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has identified new genetic factors, with many more(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES The impairment of hypocretin neurotransmission system is considered to play a major role in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy. It has been hypothesized that autoimmune abnormalities underlie the etiology of narcolepsy, based on the tight association with HLA-DRB1*1501/ DQB1*0602. It remains unclear if autoantibodies against hypocretin(More)
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (a sudden weakening of posture muscle tone usually triggered by emotion) caused by the loss of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. Autoimmune mechanisms are implicated in narcolepsy by increased frequency of specific HLA alleles and the presence of specific(More)