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Narcolepsy with cataplexy, characterized by sleepiness and rapid onset into REM sleep, affects 1 in 2,000 individuals. Narcolepsy was first shown to be tightly associated with HLA-DR2 (ref. 3) and later sublocalized to DQB1*0602 (ref. 4). Following studies in dogs and mice, a 95% loss of hypocretin-producing cells in postmortem hypothalami from narcoleptic(More)
BACKGROUND The sleep disorder narcolepsy is caused by a vast reduction in neurons producing the hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptides. Based on the tight association with HLA, narcolepsy is believed to result from an autoimmune attack, but the cause of hypocretin cell loss is still unknown. We performed gene expression profiling in the hypothalamus to identify(More)
The continuous performance test (CPT) provides a reliable index of cognitive function, but it is still unclear what aspects of processing this test measures. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of different aspects of cognitive function to the performance on degraded stimulus CPT (DSCPT), which requires a higher level of mental effort than the(More)
The hypocretin (also known as orexin) neuropeptide system coordinates the regulation of various physiological processes. A reduction in Nr6a1 expression was observed in hypocretin neuron-ablated transgenic mice. To show that prepro-hypocretin transcription is functionally modulated by NR6A1, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis,(More)
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that narcolepsy with cataplexy is an autoimmune disease. We here report genome-wide association analyses for narcolepsy with replication and fine mapping across three ethnic groups (3,406 individuals of European ancestry, 2,414 Asians and 302 African Americans). We identify a SNP in the 3' untranslated region of(More)
BACKGROUND SNP rs5770917 located between CPT1B and CHKB, and HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype were previously identified as susceptibility loci for narcolepsy with cataplexy. This study was conducted in order to investigate whether these genetic markers are associated with Japanese CNS hypersomnias (essential hypersomnia: EHS) other than narcolepsy with(More)
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (a sudden weakening of posture muscle tone usually triggered by emotion) caused by the loss of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. Autoimmune mechanisms are implicated in narcolepsy by increased frequency of specific HLA alleles and the presence of specific(More)
The power spectra of night sleep EEGs of 12 breast-feeding 9-13 week postpartum mothers were analyzed and compared with those of 12 non-pregnant women. The power spectra in the delta and theta frequency range during NREM sleep for breast-feeding mothers were significantly higher than those for non-pregnant women. In addition, the all-night sleep patterns of(More)
In the present study, we focused on the ability of suppression of processing in schizophrenic patients, using event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded during a selective attention task. During the task, subjects were required to focus on one ear, counting deviant stimuli, those deviating in duration from a sequence of standard stimuli. We compared amplitude(More)