Learn More
Narcolepsy with cataplexy, characterized by sleepiness and rapid onset into REM sleep, affects 1 in 2,000 individuals. Narcolepsy was first shown to be tightly associated with HLA-DR2 (ref. 3) and later sublocalized to DQB1*0602 (ref. 4). Following studies in dogs and mice, a 95% loss of hypocretin-producing cells in postmortem hypothalami from narcoleptic(More)
BACKGROUND The sleep disorder narcolepsy is caused by a vast reduction in neurons producing the hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptides. Based on the tight association with HLA, narcolepsy is believed to result from an autoimmune attack, but the cause of hypocretin cell loss is still unknown. We performed gene expression profiling in the hypothalamus to identify(More)
The continuous performance test (CPT) provides a reliable index of cognitive function, but it is still unclear what aspects of processing this test measures. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of different aspects of cognitive function to the performance on degraded stimulus CPT (DSCPT), which requires a higher level of mental effort than the(More)
The hypocretin (also known as orexin) neuropeptide system coordinates the regulation of various physiological processes. A reduction in Nr6a1 expression was observed in hypocretin neuron-ablated transgenic mice. To show that prepro-hypocretin transcription is functionally modulated by NR6A1, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis,(More)
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that narcolepsy with cataplexy is an autoimmune disease. We here report genome-wide association analyses for narcolepsy with replication and fine mapping across three ethnic groups (3,406 individuals of European ancestry, 2,414 Asians and 302 African Americans). We identify a SNP in the 3' untranslated region of(More)
Many types of myosin have been found and characterized to date, and already nearly 20 classes have been identified. However, these myosin motors can be classified more simply into two groups according to their head-structure, i.e. double- or single-headed myosins. Why do some myosin motors possess a double-headed structure? One obvious possible reason would(More)
BACKGROUND SNP rs5770917 located between CPT1B and CHKB, and HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype were previously identified as susceptibility loci for narcolepsy with cataplexy. This study was conducted in order to investigate whether these genetic markers are associated with Japanese CNS hypersomnias (essential hypersomnia: EHS) other than narcolepsy with(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES The impairment of hypocretin neurotransmission system is considered to play a major role in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy. It has been hypothesized that autoimmune abnormalities underlie the etiology of narcolepsy, based on the tight association with HLA-DRB1*1501/ DQB1*0602. It remains unclear if autoantibodies against hypocretin(More)
BACKGROUND There are no cures or efficacious treatments for severe motor neuron diseases. It is extremely difficult to obtain naïve spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human tissues for research due to both technical and ethical reasons. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are alternative sources. Several methods for MN differentiation have been reported.(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnant women's sleep disturbance due to fetal movement is well known. Fetal movement is thought to be an index of fetal well-being. However, as there has never been a way to easily and reliably record fetal movement, psychophysiological studies of pregnant women's sleep disturbance and fetal well-being have not been done. AIMS To solve these(More)