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The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade consisting of MAPK and its direct activator, MAPK kinase (MAPKK), is essential for signaling of various extracellular stimuli to the nucleus. Upon stimulation, MAPK is translocated to the nucleus, whereas MAPKK stays in the cytoplasm. It has been shown recently that the cytoplasmic localization of MAPKK is(More)
In Caenorhabditis elegans, an insulin-like signaling pathway, which includes the daf-2 and age-1 genes, controls longevity and stress resistance. Downregulation of this pathway activates the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16, whose transcriptional targets are suggested to play an essential role in controlling the phenotypes governed by this pathway. We(More)
In response to extracellular stimuli, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, also known as ERK) translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK, also know as MEK), which possesses a nuclear export signal (NES), acts as a cytoplasmic anchor of MAPK. Here we show evidence that tyrosine (Tyr190 in Xenopus MPK1/ERK2) phosphorylation of(More)
Phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in the hypothalamus has been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis, but the critical brain sites where this intracellular signal integrates various metabolic cues to regulate food intake and energy expenditure are unknown. Here, we show that mice with reduced PI3K activity in the ventromedial(More)
Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) results in neural differentiation of the cells, inducing neurite outgrowth. Ras protein has been shown to play an essential role in this process. To examine whether or not the MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade mediates the NGF- and Ras-induced neural differentiation process, we injected PC12 cells with(More)
Circulating leptin and insulin convey information regarding energy stores to the central nervous system, particularly the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis and express leptin and insulin receptors. However, the physiological significance of concomitant leptin and insulin action on(More)
Mice lacking 5-HT 2C receptors (5-HT(2C)Rs) displayed hepatic insulin resistance, a phenotype normalized by re-expression of 5-HT(2C)Rs only in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. 5-HT(2C)R deficiency also abolished the anti-diabetic effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (a 5-HT(2C)R agonist); these effects were restored when 5-HT(2C)Rs were re-expressed(More)
The GTPase Ran is known to regulate transport of proteins across the nuclear envelope. Recently, Ran has been shown to promote microtubule polymerization and spindle assembly around chromatin in Xenopus mitotic extracts and to stimulate nuclear envelope assembly in Xenopus or HeLa cell extracts. However, these in vitro findings have not been tested in(More)
In response to extracellular stimuli, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, also known as ERK), which localizes to the cytoplasm in quiescent cells, translocates to the nucleus and then relocalizes to the cytoplasm again. The relocalization of nuclear MAPK to the cytoplasm was not inhibited by cycloheximide, confirming that the relocalization is achieved(More)
Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiological relevance of this circuitry in the context of glucose(More)