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In Caenorhabditis elegans, an insulin-like signaling pathway, which includes the daf-2 and age-1 genes, controls longevity and stress resistance. Downregulation of this pathway activates the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16, whose transcriptional targets are suggested to play an essential role in controlling the phenotypes governed by this pathway. We(More)
In response to extracellular stimuli, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, also known as ERK), which localizes to the cytoplasm in quiescent cells, translocates to the nucleus and then relocalizes to the cytoplasm again. The relocalization of nuclear MAPK to the cytoplasm was not inhibited by cycloheximide, confirming that the relocalization is achieved(More)
Feeding on high-calorie (HC) diets induces serious metabolic imbalances, including obesity. Understanding the mechanisms against excessive body weight gain is critical for developing effective antiobesity strategies. Here we show that lack of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons causes(More)
The PI3K-Akt-FoxO1 pathway contributes to the actions of insulin and leptin in several cell types, including neurons in the CNS. However, identifying these actions in chemically identified neurons has proven difficult. To address this problem, we have developed a reporter mouse for monitoring PI3K-Akt signaling in specific populations of neurons, based on(More)
BACKGROUND Although TINU syndrome is characterized by idiopathic TIN with bilateral anterior uveitis, few reports have provided a comprehensive summary of the features of this disorder. Previous reports have suggested that many Japanese patients had HLA-A2 and -A24 (7), but there is no evidence. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old female was referred to our(More)
Circulating leptin and insulin convey information regarding energy stores to the central nervous system, particularly the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis and express leptin and insulin receptors. However, the physiological significance of concomitant leptin and insulin action on(More)
The GTPase Ran is known to regulate transport of proteins across the nuclear envelope. Recently, Ran has been shown to promote microtubule polymerization and spindle assembly around chromatin in Xenopus mitotic extracts and to stimulate nuclear envelope assembly in Xenopus or HeLa cell extracts. However, these in vitro findings have not been tested in(More)
Conventional skin flap monitoring is one of the widely used methods to assess postoperative circulation in innervated free muscle transfer (IFMT). However, following reexploration for vascular compromise and reestablishing circulation, functional recovery of the muscle despite surviving skin flap is not clear. The purpose of this article is to report three(More)
Latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) blocks B-cell receptor signal transduction in vitro by binding the Syk and Lyn protein tyrosine kinases. As well as blocking B-cell signal transduction, LMP2A has been shown to activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway, which acts as a survival signal in both B cells and epithelial cells. Transforming(More)
Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation; however, which Tlr4-expressing cells mediate this(More)