Makoto Arai

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BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) has been shown to modulate multiple cellular processes, including apoptosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of HCV NS5A on apoptosis induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS Apoptotic responses to TLR4 ligands and the expression of(More)
BACKGROUND There have been a few but not precise surveys of the current status of traditional Japanese Kampo education at medical schools in Japan. Our aim was to identify problems and suggest solutions for a standardized Kampo educational model for all medical schools throughout Japan. METHODS We surveyed all 80 medical schools in Japan regarding eight(More)
It is established that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves motor function in advanced Parkinson's disease, but its effects on autonomic function remain to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gastric emptying. A total of 16 patients with Parkinson's disease(More)
It has been reported that inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene variants protect against ribavirin-induced anemia in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. IL28B variants also influence the treatment response of peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment in these patients. In the present study, we examined how ITPA and IL28B genotypes have clinical impacts on(More)
We previously reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) e antigen (HBeAg) inhibits production of interleukin 6 by suppressing NF-κB activation. NF-κB is known to be activated through receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 2 (RIPK2), and we examined the mechanisms of interleukin 6 regulation by HBeAg. HBeAg inhibits RIPK2 expression and interacts(More)
Aims. Our aim was to identify the factors that made the specimens inadequate and nondiagnostic in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy of suspected submucosal tumors (SMTs). Methods. From August 2001 to October 2009, 47 consecutive patients with subepithelial hypoechoic tumors originating in the fourth sonographic layer of(More)
We retrospectively reviewed 413 recipients with hematologic malignancies who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between June 1986 and March 2013. Recipients with antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and/or to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were regarded as experiencing previous hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.(More)
It seems appropriate to use propylthiouracil to treat maternal hyperthyroidism during the first trimester of pregnancy. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman with acute liver failure associated with propylthiouracil during the first trimester of pregnancy. She was successfully treated without liver transplantation. Attention should be paid to the(More)
BACKGROUND Direct-acting antiviral agents against HCV with or without peginterferon plus ribavirin result in higher eradication rates of HCV and shorter treatment duration. We examined which is better for predicting persistent virologic response, the assessment of serum HCV RNA at 12 or 24 weeks after the end of treatment for predicting sustained virologic(More)
Aim. Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is still challenging even if interferon- (IFN-) free regimens with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV-infected individuals are available in clinical practice. IFNL4 is a newly described protein, associated with human antiviral defenses. We investigated whether IFNL4 ss469415590 variant has an effect on(More)