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In order to analyze the salt transport affected by roots and its effects on soil salinity in an experimental irrigated field newly established in an alluvial valley of the Yellow River in China, spatial distribution of ions contained in waters, soils and crops relevant to these phenomena were evaluated there. During the intensive surveys conducted in year(More)
Variability in soil moisture on a steep slope near a ridge in a forested mountain range, Shikoku, Japan, was studied observationally and numerically. Vertically integrated soil moisture, from a depth of −60 cm to the surface, W, was introduced as a key indicator, and its seasonal variation was analysed on a daily basis from August 2011 to August 2012. The(More)
Of the various biomass crops, one of the most promising for bioenergy or biochemical production is giant reed (Arundo donax L.): It is tolerant to a wide range of environmental stresses and can therefore be cultivated on marginal lands which cannot be used for traditional food crops. An open field experiment was carried out in a soil subjected to(More)
In the field of agriculture, development of evaluation techniques for environmental changes is urgently required for the purpose of finding a balance between growth in agricultural productivity and environmental considerations. The habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) constitute one technique for habitat assessment. While HEP is widely applied to estimate(More)
Chiyoda basin is located in Saga Prefecture in Kyushu Island, Japan, and lies next to the tidal compartment of the Chikugo River to which the excess water in the basin is drained away. Chiyoda basin has a total area of about 1,100 ha and is a typical flat and low-lying paddy-cultivated area. The main problem in this basin is the appropriate operation of(More)
Aquatic vegetation plays a very important role in providing food, shelter, and nursery habitat and is also regarded as hydraulic resistance in the stream environment. To achieve better ecological restoration, this trade-off should be solved both hydraulically and ecologically. This study quantifies the effect of aquatic vegetation on the spatial(More)
Chiyoda basin is located in Saga Prefecture in Kyushu Island, Japan, and lies next to the tidal compartment of the Chikugo River to which the excess water in the basin is drained away. Chiyoda basin has a total area of about 1,100 ha and is a typical flat and low-lying paddy-cultivated area. The main environmental issue in this basin is total nitrogen (TN)(More)
We propose neuron devices that perform subtraction and nonlinear functions with two-input and one-output optical signals. The device based on a pair of point-contact phototransistors and a LED can easily integrated with several hundred pixels. The basic structure of the PCPT we developed is a 10 nm thickness InGaAs quantum well with GaAs barrier layers(More)
Surface vapor pressure (SVP) is a significant meteorological variable that expresses the status of atmospheric moisture near the ground surface. Its lower values characterize dry atmospheric conditions, and are strongly correlated with the occurrence of days with lower daily minimum temperatures from autumn to the following spring, which frequently induces(More)
In watershed management, the determination of peak and total runoff due to rainfall and prediction of pollutant load are very important. Measurement of rainfall runoff and pollutant load is always the best approach but is not always possible at the desired time and location. In practice, diffuse pollution has a complex natural dependence on various land-use(More)