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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a glial-cell-related factor, was measured for the first time in the brain (striatum) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from control and parkinsonian patients by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The concentrations of TNF-alpha in the brain and CSF were significantly higher in parkinsonian patients than those in(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) were measured for the first time in the brain (caudate nucleus, putamen and cerebral cortex) from control and parkinsonian patients by highly sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassays. The concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-6, EGF, and TGF-alpha in the(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1 beta , IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha were measured for the first time in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (VCSF) from control non-parkinsonian patients, patients with juvenile parkinsonism (JP) and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by highly sensitive sandwich enzyme(More)
We found that in Parkinson's disease (PD) the levels of various cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha, TGF-beta1] were significantly increased in the striatum (caudate and putamen) of the postmortem brain and in ventricular or spinal(More)
We previously reported that the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are increased in the striatum and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and in the striatum from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, a murine model of PD. Presently we examined the changes in(More)
We and other workers found markedly increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis-related proteins in parkinsonian brain. Although the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains enigmatic, apoptosis might be involved in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD. To investigate the possible presence of other inflammatory cytokines(More)
Although a recent study suggested the involvement of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the pathogenesis of bone-destructive disease, no study has focused on the RANKL:OPG ratio in the synovial fluid of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. This communication reports on the concentrations of RANKL and OPG in synovial fluid from TMJ patients(More)
Degeneration of the dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the resulting loss of nerve terminals accompanied by DA deficiency in the striatum are responsible for most of the movement disturbances called parkinsonism, observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). One hypothesis of the cause of degeneration of the nigrostriatal DA neurons is(More)
Using highly sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we measured for the first time the concentrations of brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) in the brain (substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, putamen, cerebellum, and frontal cortex) from control and parkinsonian patients. BDNF in the human brain (the order of ng/mg protein) was(More)