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Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) were measured for the first time in the brain (caudate nucleus, putamen and cerebral cortex) from control and parkinsonian patients by highly sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassays. The concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-6, EGF, and TGF-alpha in the(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1 beta , IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha were measured for the first time in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (VCSF) from control non-parkinsonian patients, patients with juvenile parkinsonism (JP) and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by highly sensitive sandwich enzyme(More)
A new Japanese nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy wire was developed by the Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. of Japan. This wire was subjected to uniaxial tensile testing and a specially designed three-point bending test to determine the wire stiffness, and to evaluate spring-back, shape memory, and super-elasticity. The Japanese NiTi wire exhibited an unusual(More)
Deficiency of osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), in mice induces osteoporosis caused by enhanced bone resorption, but also accelerates bone formation. We examined whether bone formation is coupled with bone resorption in OPG-deficient (OPG-/-) mice using risedronate, an inhibitor(More)
Bone remodeling is a complex process regulated by several mediators. Recent work has revealed that cytokines and growth factors have significant effects on bone cell metabolism. However, little information is available concerning the production of cytokines during orthodontic tooth movement in human subjects, and there is no non-invasive model for(More)
In the present study, we demonstrated the constitutive expression of diffusible axon guidance molecules such as neurotrophins, semaphorin-III, netrin-1, and netrin-2-like protein, which are known to function as a chemoattractant and/or chemorepellent for growing nerve fibers, in human osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. The findings, obtained by RT-PCR,(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a glial-cell-related factor, was measured for the first time in the brain (striatum) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from control and parkinsonian patients by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The concentrations of TNF-alpha in the brain and CSF were significantly higher in parkinsonian patients than those in(More)
We found that in Parkinson's disease (PD) the levels of various cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha, TGF-beta1] were significantly increased in the striatum (caudate and putamen) of the postmortem brain and in ventricular or spinal(More)
The current study explored our hypothesis that IFN-gamma-producing human T cells inhibit human osteoclast formation. Activated T cells derived from human PBMC were divided into IFN-gamma-producing T cells (IFN-gamma(+) T cells) and IFN-gamma-non-producing T cells (IFN-gamma(-) T cells). IFN-gamma(+) T cells were cultured with human monocytes in the presence(More)
We and other workers found markedly increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis-related proteins in parkinsonian brain. Although the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains enigmatic, apoptosis might be involved in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD. To investigate the possible presence of other inflammatory cytokines(More)