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A new Japanese nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy wire was developed by the Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. of Japan. This wire was subjected to uniaxial tensile testing and a specially designed three-point bending test to determine the wire stiffness, and to evaluate spring-back, shape memory, and super-elasticity. The Japanese NiTi wire exhibited an unusual(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a glial-cell-related factor, was measured for the first time in the brain (striatum) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from control and parkinsonian patients by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The concentrations of TNF-alpha in the brain and CSF were significantly higher in parkinsonian patients than those in(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1 beta , IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha were measured for the first time in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (VCSF) from control non-parkinsonian patients, patients with juvenile parkinsonism (JP) and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by highly sensitive sandwich enzyme(More)
Bone remodeling is a complex process regulated by several mediators. Recent work has revealed that cytokines and growth factors have significant effects on bone cell metabolism. However, little information is available concerning the production of cytokines during orthodontic tooth movement in human subjects, and there is no non-invasive model for(More)
OBJECTIVE To elucidate the direct role of human T cells in the induction of osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), by studying human monocytes and the pathogenetic roles of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL), RANK, and osteoprotegerin (OPG). METHODS Synovial tissue obtained at total knee replacement was stained(More)
IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine crucial for osteoclastic bone resorption in the presence of osteoblasts or synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. However, the role of IL-17 in osteoclastogenesis from human monocytes alone remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of IL-17 in osteoclastogenesis from human monocytes alone and the direct effect of(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) were measured for the first time in the brain (caudate nucleus, putamen and cerebral cortex) from control and parkinsonian patients by highly sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassays. The concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-6, EGF, and TGF-alpha in the(More)
Degeneration of the dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the resulting loss of nerve terminals accompanied by DA deficiency in the striatum are responsible for most of the movement disturbances called parkinsonism, observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). One hypothesis of the cause of degeneration of the nigrostriatal DA neurons is(More)
Deficiency of osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), in mice induces osteoporosis caused by enhanced bone resorption, but also accelerates bone formation. We examined whether bone formation is coupled with bone resorption in OPG-deficient (OPG-/-) mice using risedronate, an inhibitor(More)
We found that in Parkinson's disease (PD) the levels of various cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha, TGF-beta1] were significantly increased in the striatum (caudate and putamen) of the postmortem brain and in ventricular or spinal(More)