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GLOBAL SURFACE TEMPERATURE CHANGE
[1] We update the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis of global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of globalExpand
Global temperature change
TLDR
Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within ≈1°C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. Expand
Radiative forcing and climate response
We examine the sensitivity of a climate model to a wide range of radiative forcings, including changes of solar irradiance, atmospheric CO2, O3, CFCs, clouds, aerosols, surface albedo, and a “ghost”Expand
Stratospheric aerosol optical depths, 1850–1990
A global stratospheric aerosol database employed for climate simulations is described. For the period 1883-1990, aerosol optical depths are estimated from optical extinction data, whose qualityExpand
GISS analysis of surface temperature change
We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was theExpand
Perception of climate change
TLDR
It follows that it can be state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming because their likelihood in the absence ofglobal warming was exceedingly small. Expand
Efficacy of climate forcings
[1] We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the “efficacy” of different forcings, whereExpand
A closer look at United States and global surface temperature change
We compare the United States and global surface air temperature changes of the past century using the current Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis and the U.S. Historical ClimatologyExpand
Earth's energy imbalance and implications
Abstract. Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferredExpand
Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications
TLDR
It is calculated that Earth is now absorbing 0.85 ± 0.15 watts per square meter more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space, confirmed by precise measurements of increasing ocean heat content over the past 10 years. Expand
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