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The effects of short-time fasting on appetite, growth, and nutrient were studied in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts. Feed deprivation did change the energy metabolism with reduced plasma protein and muscle indispensible amino acid levels. Plasma levels of ghrelin were significantly higher in starved salmon compared with fed fish after 2 days, but no(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has two genotypes, the North American-type (NA-type) and the European-type (EU-type), and each genotype is also genetically diverged. We sequenced the ORF5 gene of 30 PRRSVs isolated from 23 prefectures of Japan during 1992 and 1993 and during 2000 and 2001. All of the isolates were of the NA-type.(More)
Fexofenadine hydrochloride (FEX), a second generation H(1)-receptor antagonist, is mainly eliminated from the liver into bile in unchanged form. Recent studies have shown that FEX can be accepted by human MDR1 (P-glycoprotein), OATP1A2 [organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)-A, and OATP2B1 (OATP-B)] expression systems. However, other transporters(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) and reactive oxidative species (ROS) that are produced by NADPH oxidase have been implicated in the progression of glomerulonephritis (GN). This study examined the effect of simultaneously interrupting Ang II and ROS with an Ang II receptor blocker (ARB), candesartan, and a free radical scavenger, probucol, in a model of progressive(More)
Enhanced intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the development and progression of renal injury. To investigate whether angiotensinogen (AGT) expression is involved in glomerular RAS activity and glomerular injury, we examined glomerular AGT expression and its correlation with expression of other RAS components, and levels of glomerular(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays an important role in the regulation of various cellular functions in glomerulonephritis (GN). Here, we investigated whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5), a member of the MAPK family, is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic mesangioproliferative GN, using a rat model induced by(More)
Excessive renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation within the kidney induces not only renal oxidative stress but also renal scarring and dysfunction. This study examined the effects of an angiotensin II (Ang II) type I receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) on the progression of renal injury in rat anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (GN), with a(More)
BACKGROUND Glomerular parietal epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key event in crescent formation of glomerulonephritis (GN). Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an integrin cytoplasmic-binding protein that has been implicated in the regulation of cell adhesion, extracellular matrix organization and EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is(More)
Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the common final pathway leading to end-stage renal failure. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is characterized by fibroblast proliferation and excessive matrix accumulation. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) has been implicated in the development of renal fibrosis accompanied by alpha-smooth muscle actin(More)