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BACKGROUND Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R1, 2, and 3) are intracellular Ca2+ release channels that regulate various vital processes. Although the ryanodine receptor type 2, another type of intracellular Ca2+ release channel, has been shown to play a role in embryonic cardiomyocytes, the functions of the IP3Rs in cardiogenesis remain unclear.(More)
Patients with Down syndrome (DS) and a left-to-right shunt often develop early severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary vascular obstructive disease (PVOD); the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of these complications are yet to be determined. To investigate the mechanisms, we evaluated the biosynthesis of thromboxane (TX)(More)
Congenital heart diseases (CHD) result from abnormal morphogenesis of the embryonic cardiovascular system and usually involve defects in specific structural components of the developing heart and vessels. Therefore, an understanding of "Molecular Embryology", with specific focus on the individual modular steps involved in cardiovascular morphogenesis, is(More)
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in 0.5-1% of live births, yet the underlying genetic etiology remains mostly unknown. Recently, a new source of myocardial cells, namely the second heart field (SHF), was discovered in the splanchnic mesoderm. Abnormal development of the SHF leads to a spectrum of outflow tract defects, such as persistent truncus(More)
The embryonic-maternal interface of the placental labyrinth, allantois, and yolk sac are vital during embryogenesis; however, the precise mechanism underlying the vascularization of these structures remains unknown. Herein we focus on the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R), which are intracellular Ca(2+) release channels, in(More)
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