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BACKGROUND Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to be elevated in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Two biallelic polymorphisms have been identified in the TNF gene locus: one in the promoter region of TNF-alpha (TNFA1/2), and the other in the first intron of TNF-beta (TNFB1/2). Both TNFA2 and TNFB2 alleles are associated with high(More)
Subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (Apo) and intrajejunal levodopa infusion (IJLI) are two treatment options for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) and refractory motor complications, with varying cost of treatment. There are no multicenter studies comparing the effects of the two strategies. This open-label, prospective, observational, 6-month,(More)
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) has become an accepted tool for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the precise mechanism of action of this intervention is unknown, its effectiveness has been attributed to the modulation of pathological network activity. We examined this notion using positron emission tomography(More)
The DYT1 dystonia mutation is associated with an abnormal metabolic brain network characterized by hypermetabolism of the basal ganglia, supplementary motor area, and the cerebellum. In this study, we quantified the activity of this network in carriers of other dystonia mutations to determine whether this functional abnormality is linked to genotype. The(More)
Posthypoxic myoclonus (PHM) is a syndrome of action and intention myoclonus that occurs in some patients who survive a cardiac arrest. Using PET and statistical parametric mapping, the authors observed a significant bilateral increase in glucose metabolism in the ventrolateral thalamus and pontine tegmentum in patients relative to controls. Interventions(More)
OBJECT Short-term benefit from unilateral subthalamotomy for advanced Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with metabolic alterations in key targets of subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP) output. In this study positron emission tomography (PET) scanning was used to assess these changes and their relation to long-term benefits of(More)
BACKGROUND Although an autoimmune pathogenesis has been postulated for dilated cardiomyopathy, immunosuppressive therapy has not been shown to be effective in clinical trials. Immune modulatory therapy with immune globulin is an effective therapy for Kawasaki disease in children, and recent data suggest that it improves ventricular function in children with(More)
BACKGROUND Othello syndrome (OS) is an organic delusional disorder with prevailing jealousy symptoms presumably appearing as side effect of antiparkinsonian therapy. The clinical spectrum of psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is very wide, including symptoms of depression and anxiety, hallucinations, delusions, with prevalent paranoid(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Dystonia is a movement disorder with a complex and not fully understood pathophysiology. Its better understanding would enable more focused treatment for the disorder. In this review, we provide an overview of recent studies of the pathophysiology of primary and secondary dystonia, with an emphasis on functional brain imaging. Potential(More)