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BACKGROUND Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is a direct-writing technique with nanometer resolution, which has received strongly increasing attention within the last decade. In FEBID a precursor previously adsorbed on a substrate surface is dissociated in the focus of an electron beam. After 20 years of continuous development FEBID has(More)
We present an atomic force microscope (AFM) head for optical beam deflection on small cantilevers. Our AFM head is designed to be small in size, easily integrated into a commercial AFM system, and has a modular architecture facilitating exchange of the optical and electronic assemblies. We present two different designs for both the optical beam deflection(More)
In this paper we present a novel architecture for phase-locked loop (PLL) based high-speed demodulation of frequency-modulated (FM) atomic force microscopy (AFM) signals. In our approach, we use single-sideband (SSB) frequency upconversion to translate the AFM signal from the position sensitive detector to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF) of 10 MHz. In(More)
Optical beam deflection (OBD) is the most prevalent method for measuring cantilever deflections in atomic force microscopy (AFM), mainly due to its excellent noise performance. In contrast, piezoresistive strain-sensing techniques provide benefits over OBD in readout size and the ability to image in light-sensitive or opaque environments, but traditionally(More)
Tip-scanning high-speed atomic force microscopes (HS-AFMs) have several advantages over their sample-scanning counterparts. Firstly, they can be used on samples of almost arbitrary size since the high imaging bandwidth of the system is immune to the added mass of the sample and its holder. Depending on their layouts, they also enable the use of several(More)
The sensitivity and detection speed of cantilever-based mechanical sensors increases drastically through size reduction. The need for such increased performance for high-speed nanocharacterization and bio-sensing, drives their sub-micrometre miniaturization in a variety of research fields. However, existing detection methods of the cantilever motion do not(More)
Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has been demonstrated as a promising solution for synthesizing truly three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. However, the lack of morphological feedback during growth complicates further development toward higher spatial fabrication precision. Here, we show that by combining in situ high speed atomic force(More)
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