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The major promoter region for the transcription of the genome of rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), a newly described badnavirus, has been identified. Fragments of the RTBV genome upstream of the site of transcription initiation were isolated and tested for promoter activity using a beta-glucuronidase receptor gene (gusA). Assays of transient gusA(More)
A number of bacterial metal transporters belong to the cluster 9 family of ABC transporters. The residues in the periplasmic domain thought to be involved in metal binding seem highly conserved and yet the transporters have varying metal specificity. To solve this seeming paradox and ascertain how metal specificity is exacted, the structure of ZnuA, the(More)
In injured skin, collagenase-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)) is induced in migrating keratinocytes. This site-specific expression is regulated by binding of the alpha(2)beta(1) integrin with dermal type I collagen, and the catalytic activity of MMP-1 is required for keratinocyte migration. Because of this functional association among(More)
Exposure to methyl viologen in the presence of light facilitates the production of superoxide that gives severe damage on photosynthetic apparatus as well as many cellular processes in cyanobacteria and plants. The effects of methyl viologen on global gene expression of a unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 were determined by DNA(More)
Light drives the production of chemical energy and reducing equivalents in photosynthetic organisms required for the assimilation of essential nutrients. This process also generates strong oxidants and reductants that can be damaging to the cellular processes, especially during absorption of excess excitation energy. Cyanobacteria, like other oxygenic(More)
Cyanobacteria are the only known prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis. They play significant roles in global biogeochemical cycles and carbon sequestration, and have recently been recognized as potential vehicles for production of renewable biofuels. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been extensively used as a model organism for cyanobacterial(More)
Photosynthetic organisms experience changes in light quantity and light quality in their natural habitat. In response to changes in light quality, these organisms redistribute excitation energy and adjust photosystem stoichiometry to maximize the utilization of available light energy. However, the response of other cellular processes to changes in light(More)
Elemental manganese is essential for the production of molecular oxygen by cyanobacteria, plants, and algae. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, transcription of the mntCAB operon, encoding a high affinity Mn transporter, occurs under Mn starvation (nm Mn) conditions but not in Mn-sufficient (microm Mn) growth medium. Using a strain in which(More)
Cyanobacteria account for a significant percentage of aquatic primary productivity even in areas where the concentrations of essential micronutrients are extremely low. To better understand the mechanism of iron selectivity and transport, the structure of the solute binding domain of an ATP binding cassette iron transporter, FutA1, was determined in the(More)
It has recently been established that the carboxyl-terminal propeptide of type I collagen exert a feedback regulatory effect on extracellular matrix biosynthesis and that the propeptide bind to the alpha2beta1 integrin. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that the regulatory propeptide sequences exert their effects as a consequence of binding to the(More)