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Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) is able to infect a number of herbaceous and woody hosts, such as grapevine, Citrus or Prunus plants. Previous phylogenetic analyses have suggested the existence of three major groups of HSVd isolates (plum-type, hop-type and citrus-type). The fact that these groups often contain isolates from only a limited number of isolation hosts(More)
 The complete nucleotide sequence of a Spanish isolate of Carnation mottle carmovirus (CarMV) has been determined. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out with the replicase, coat protein (CP) and the putative movement proteins (p7 and p9) of CarMV with the homologous proteins of representative members of the different genera included within the family(More)
The small size of plant viral genomes, the ease with which they can be manipulated, and the simplicity of the infection process is making the viral vectors an attractive alternative to the transgenic systems for the expression of foreign proteins in plants. One use of these virus expression systems is for vaccine production. There are two basic types of(More)
Several viruses, which in some cases can cause severe losses, affect carnation plants. These viruses include carnation mottle virus, carnation etched ring virus (CERV), carnation vein mottle virus, carnation ringspot virus, carnation Italian ringspot virus and carnation latent virus. A non-isotopic molecular hybridization was developed for the detection of(More)
We have developed combined transgene/virus vector systems for the expression of heterologous proteins in plants. The systems are based on the bipartite RNA plant virus, cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), and involve the amplification of integrated copies of either full-length or deleted versions of RNA-2 carrying a foreign gene. In the case of plants transgenic(More)
Viruses express proteins with silencing suppression activity to counteract the RNA silencing-mediated defense response of the host. In the family Closteroviridae, examples of multiple-component RNA silencing suppression systems have been reported. To ascertain if this is a general strategy in this group of viruses, we have explored the bipartite genome of(More)
Natural killer (NK) and T-lymphocytes monitor human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E expression through CD94:NKG2 heterodimers. Structural polymorphism is not a hallmark for NK-complex genes on chromosome 12, except for complete NKG2C deletion in some humans. We present a method for fast, simple and accurate assessment of NKG2C copy-number variation - presence or(More)
Circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are the smallest viruses known to infect eukaryotes. High recombination and mutation rates have conferred these viruses with an evolutionary potential that has facilitated their emergence. Their damaging effects on livestock (circoviruses) and crops (geminiviruses and nanoviruses), and the ubiquity of(More)
UNLABELLED Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is one of the most devastating viral diseases affecting tomato crops in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. Here, we focus on the interactions through recombination between the different begomovirus species causing TYLCD, provide an overview of the interactions with the cellular genes(More)
Lines of Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic for full-length copies of both Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) genomic RNAs, either singly or together, have been produced. Plants transgenic for both RNAs developed symptoms characteristic of a CPMV infection. When plants transgenic for RNA-1 were agro-inoculated with RNA-2, no infection developed and the plants were(More)