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Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are injected into host plant cells by Xanthomonas bacteria to function as transcriptional activators for the benefit of the pathogen. The DNA binding domain of TAL effectors is composed of conserved amino acid repeat structures containing repeat-variable diresidues (RVDs) that determine DNA binding specificity.(More)
As a key virulence strategy to cause bacterial leaf blight, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) injects into the plant cell DNA-binding proteins called transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) that bind to effector-binding elements (EBEs) in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in host gene induction. TALEs AvrXa7, PthXo3, TalC and Tal5, found in(More)
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are virulence factors, produced by the bacterial plant-pathogen Xanthomonas, that function as gene activators inside plant cells. Although the contribution of individual TALEs to infectivity has been shown, the specific roles of most TALEs, and the overall TALE diversity in Xanthomonas spp. is not known. TALEs(More)
Plant-pathogenic xanthomonads have evolved TAL effectors (TALEs) as activators of plant genes to manipulate the host to their benefit. Cracking the code of TALE DNA-binding specificity revealed a simple one-to-one relationship between protein domains and DNA bases bound. This now allows the simple design of any desired DNA-binding specificity. Accordingly,(More)
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