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Retroviral assembly and budding is driven by the Gag polyprotein and requires the host-derived vacuolar protein sorting (vps) machinery. With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected macrophages, current models predict that the vps machinery is recruited by Gag to viral budding sites at the cell surface. However, here we demonstrate that(More)
The spread of retroviruses between cells is estimated to be 2-3 orders of magnitude more efficient when cells can physically interact with each other. The underlying mechanism is largely unknown, but transfer is believed to occur through large-surface interfaces, called virological or infectious synapses. Here, we report the direct visualization of(More)
Viruses have often been observed in association with the dense microvilli of polarized epithelia as well as the filopodia of nonpolarized cells, yet whether interactions with these structures contribute to infection has remained unknown. Here we show that virus binding to filopodia induces a rapid and highly ordered lateral movement, "surfing" toward the(More)
DNA can be internalized by mammalian cells without taking advantage of helper reagents. Here, we ask whether the spontaneous cellular uptake of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) occurs in a biologically significant and sequence-dependent way. We describe a combinatorial approach to search for dsDNA sequence segments that are preferentially internalized. A(More)
Nine gene clusters dedicated to nonribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites with possible antimicrobial action, including polymyxin and fusaricidin, were detected within the whole genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Paenibacillus polymyxa M-1. To survey the antimicrobial compounds expressed by M-1 we analyzed the active(More)
UNLABELLED Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) downregulates cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) in infected cells. We have previously shown that pUL56 encoded by the EHV-1 ORF1 gene regulates the process (G. Ma, S. Feineis, N. Osterrieder, and G. R. Van de Walle, J. Virol. 86:3554-3563, 2012,(More)
The Nef protein is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenicity that, among other activities, sensitizes T-lymphocytes for optimal virus production. The initial events by which Nef modulates the T-cell receptor (TCR) cascade are poorly understood. TCR engagement triggers actin rearrangements that control receptor clustering for(More)
Periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, are caused by a mixed infection by several types of bacteria in the dental plaque, causing a chronic inflammation of the gingival mucosa. Inflammatory processes in conjunction with immune responses to bacterial attacks are generally protective. In profound periodontitis, however,(More)
The importance of pathogen-induced host cell remodelling has been well established for red blood cell infection by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Exported parasite-encoded proteins, which often possess a signature motif, termed Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) or host-targeting (HT) signal, are critical for the extensive red blood cell(More)
The obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites, e.g. Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium species, induce an IFNγ-driven induction of host indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of tryptophan catabolism in the kynurenine pathway. Induction of IDO1 supposedly depletes cellular levels of tryptophan in host cells, which is(More)