Maija Toropainen

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BACKGROUND The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ≤5 years of age during the first(More)
A total of 985 group A streptococcus (GAS) bacteraemia isolates collected in Finland during 1995-2004 were T-serotyped, and of these, 336 isolates of serotype T28 were subjected to further emm typing. The total number of isolates referred per year showed an increase within the study period, from 43 in 1995 to 130 in 2004. The annual incidence of invasive(More)
All currently available vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae are based on selections of the over 90 different serotypes, which underlines the importance of serotyping for surveillance and vaccine efficacy monitoring. In this study, we modified and validated a PCR-based scheme for deducing the serotypes of the invasive pneumococci isolated in Finland.(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial, nonnecrotizing cellulitis is a localized and often recurrent infection of the skin. The aim of this study was to identify the beta-hemolytic streptococci that cause acute nonnecrotizing cellulitis infection in Finland. METHODS A case-control study of 90 patients hospitalized for acute cellulitis and 90 control subjects was conducted(More)
The relationship between carriage and the development of invasive meningococcal disease is not fully understood. We investigated the changes in meningococcal carriage in 892 military recruits in Finland during a nonepidemic period (July 2004 to January 2006) and characterized all of the oropharyngeal meningococcal isolates obtained (n = 215) by using(More)
The major outer membrane protein PorA of Neisseria meningitidis is the target for bactericidal serosubtyping antibodies and is currently considered as a potential vaccine candidate against group B meningococcal disease. Although the minor antigenic variability of the PorA has been increasingly recognized and described, its implication for vaccine design(More)
Neisseria meningitidis, an important cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia worldwide, is associated with high mortality and serious sequelae. Natural immunity against meningococcal disease develops with age, but the specificity and functional activity of natural antibodies associated with protection are poorly understood. We addressed this question(More)
The infant rat infection model previously developed to evaluate protective ability of passively administered murine antibodies to group B meningococcal (MenB) surface antigens was adapted for human sera. Several challenge doses were tested, aiming at sensitive detection of protection with little interassay variability. Doses of 10(5) and 10(6) colony(More)
New vaccines targeting meningococci expressing serogroup B polysaccharide have been developed, with some being licensed in Europe. Coverage depends on the distribution of disease-associated genotypes, which may vary by age. It is well established that a small number of hyperinvasive lineages account for most disease, and these lineages are associated with(More)
Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane protein D (PD) is a glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) activity-possessing virulence factor and a promising vaccine antigen, providing 35.3% efficacy against acute otitis media caused by nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI) when it was used as a carrier protein in a novel pneumococcal PD conjugate (Pnc-PD)(More)