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Bacteriophage PRD1 is an icosahedral dsDNA virus with a diameter of 740 A and an outer protein shell composed of 720 copies of major coat protein P3. Spike complexes at the vertices are composed of a pentameric base (protein P31) and a spike structure (proteins P5 and P2) where the N-terminal region of the trimeric P5 is associated with the base and the(More)
The major outer membrane protein PorA of Neisseria meningitidis is the target for bactericidal serosubtyping antibodies and is currently considered as a potential vaccine candidate against group B meningococcal disease. Although the minor antigenic variability of the PorA has been increasingly recognized and described, its implication for vaccine design(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial, nonnecrotizing cellulitis is a localized and often recurrent infection of the skin. The aim of this study was to identify the beta-hemolytic streptococci that cause acute nonnecrotizing cellulitis infection in Finland. METHODS A case-control study of 90 patients hospitalized for acute cellulitis and 90 control subjects was conducted(More)
BACKGROUND The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ≤5 years of age during the first(More)
Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus is divided into 12 distinct serogroups of which A, B, C, W, X, and Y are medically most important and cause health problems in different parts of the world. The epidemiology of N. meningitidis is unpredictable over time and across geographic regions. Globally, serogroup A has been prevalent in the African "meningitis(More)
Alcohol-nontolerant (ANT) rats, produced by selective breeding for high sensitivity to motor-impairing effects of ethanol, have a point mutation in the cerebellar gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor alpha 6 subunit, which has been proposed to underlie enhanced sensitivity to benzodiazepine agonists as well. We compared ANT and alcohol-tolerant(More)
New vaccines targeting meningococci expressing serogroup B polysaccharide have been developed, with some being licensed in Europe. Coverage depends on the distribution of disease-associated genotypes, which may vary by age. It is well established that a small number of hyperinvasive lineages account for most disease, and these lineages are associated with(More)
Neisseria meningitidis is differentiated into 12 distinct serogroups, of which A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y are medically most important and represent an important health problem in different parts of the world. The epidemiology of N. meningitidis is unpredictable over time and across geographic regions. Recent epidemiological surveillance has indicated an(More)
Neisseria meningitidis, an important cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia worldwide, is associated with high mortality and serious sequelae. Natural immunity against meningococcal disease develops with age, but the specificity and functional activity of natural antibodies associated with protection are poorly understood. We addressed this question(More)
The relationship between carriage and the development of invasive meningococcal disease is not fully understood. We investigated the changes in meningococcal carriage in 892 military recruits in Finland during a nonepidemic period (July 2004 to January 2006) and characterized all of the oropharyngeal meningococcal isolates obtained (n = 215) by using(More)